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Dipylon  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The name used to refer to the double gateway in Athens' city wall leading into the *Ceramicus and to the cemetery immediately outside the wall in that area. The gateway comprised a rectangular ... More

discus  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Throwing the discus developed from throwing the solos or weight (cf. Il. 23. 826–49), and resembled a combination of modern discus-throwing and shot-put. Surviving examples of ancient discuses vary ... More

dress  

Hero Granger-Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In classical antiquity, items of clothing and jewellery were major personal possessions. The prominence of drapery, i.e. clothing, in Greek and Roman art reflects the importance of dress in daily ... More

Ephyra  

W. M. Murray

Ephyra (also Cichyrus: Strabo 7. 7. 5), a city in western Epirus near the mouth of the *Acheron river. Here *Neoptolemus (1) landed on his return from Troy (Pind. Nem. 7. 37–9) and *Odysseus came to ... More

Epigonus  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Pergamene sculptor, active c.240–220 bce. Epigonus signed eight dedications at *Pergamum;*Pliny (1) the Elder, HN 34.88 credits him with numerous bronzes, including a Trumpeter and a Weeping Child ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More

epinētron  

Jenifer Neils

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Epinētron (ἐπίνητρον, pl. epinētra), an implement used in the production of woolen textiles. The epinētron is a hollow, semi-cylindrical, usually terracotta, sheath for a woman’s thigh which is ... More

Erechtheum  

Theodore Fyfe, Richard Ernest Wycherley, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ancient name for a shrine identified by most (but not all) scholars with the third outstanding building on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 421 bce and finished, after a lapse, in 407 bce; ... More

Euphranor, Greek sculptor and painter, active c. 370–330 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Only his colossal marble *Apollo Patrous has survived. A virtuoso all-rounder, he also made personifications (Aretē, Hellas, i.e. Virtue and Greece), heroes (*Achilles, *Paris) and portraits (*Philip ... More

Europus  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Europus (also Dura), on the middle *Euphrates, founded by the *Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bce, and a *polis in the 2nd cent. bce. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in ... More

Eutychides, Sicyonian sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Sicyonian sculptor, pupil of *Lysippus (2), active c.330–290 bce. Famed for his *Tyche for *Antioch (1) (founded in 300), known in many copies and widely imitated by other cities; wearing a mural ... More

farm buildings, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There are no distinct agricultural buildings in Archaic and Classical Greece: those who exploited the land lived in and worked from houses indistinguishable from those inhabited by others who gained ... More

fortifications, Greek  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Eric William Marsden, and Richard Allan Tomlinson

In the Aegean area small towns with perimeter walls appear early in the bronze age (Khalandriani). More usual is the fortified acropolis, increasingly developed in the troubled times of the late ... More

furniture  

Nicholas Purcell

The table, chair, and couch are the central canon of ancient furnishings. Their principal characteristic (by contrast with early modern and modern furnishings) is portability, essential in the ... More

games  

Frederick Adam Wright and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
One of the earliest games played in Greece, if we may believe *Athenaeus (1), was marbles: the suitors of *Penelope shot their alleys in turn against another marble, representing the ... More

gems  

Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers

Precious stones were valued in antiquity as possessing magical and medicinal virtues, as ornaments, and as seals when engraved with a device. Such engravings (intaglios) in soft media like steatite ... More

gift, Greece  

G. Herman

In the Homeric poems, gift-giving perhaps receives more attention than any other peaceful heroic activity. It has three outstanding features. First, gifts have an extremely wide range of ... More

Glycon (2), Athenian sculptor, early 3rd cent. CE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Glycon (2) Athenian sculptor (early 3rd cent. ce), known from his signature on the Farnese Hercules in Naples, found in the baths of Caracalla. The statue is a version of a late 4th-cent. ... More

Gnathia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Gnathia (mod. Fasano), a Messapian port, 58 km. (36 mi.) south of *Barium, which dominated land and sea communications, handling trade with Greece. It prospered in the Hellenistic period, a phase ... More

Gortyn, Gortyn law code  

Victor Ehrenberg, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gortyn was a city in central *Crete. From the 7th cent. bce are known a temple to *Athena on the acropolis, and one to *Apollo Pythios on the plain; an agora lies at the foot of the acropolis. By the ... More

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