Nicholas J. Richardson
Antinous (1), son of Eupeithes (Od. 1. 383), ringleader of *Penelope's suitors, and first to be killed by *Odysseus, whose kingship he is said to have wished to usurp (Od. 22. 8–53).
Aparchē, ‘first-fruits’, a gift to the gods consisting in a part representing the whole, and hence named ‘from the beginning’ (Gk. ap-archai, Lat. primitiae, Hebr. bikkurim). The swineherd *Eumaeus, having killed a pig for *Odysseus, cuts ‘beginnings from the limbs’ and burns them (Od. 14. 414–53). ‘First-fruits’ are a step from nature to culture: one renounces ‘firsts’ for the sake of ‘Those who are First’. Aparchai could be either burnt, deposited at sacred spots, or sunk in water. They could consist of seasonal agricultural gifts (hōraia), or those vowed ad hoc. Measures of wheat, barley, wine, and meat could be stipulated as gifts to temples (as the Panhellenic aparchai in *Eleusis, LSCG 5) and could serve, in turn, for public festivals. See also
Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Hornblower
Aphaea (Ἀφαία), a goddess worshipped in *Aegina, where the ruins of her temple (famous for its pedimental sculptures, now in Munich) are extant. She was identified with *Britomartis (Paus. 2. 30. 3); i.e. she was of similar character to *Artemis.
V. Pirenne-Delforge and André Motte
Aphrodite (Ἀφροδίτη). Born from the severed genitals of *Uranus according to *Hesiod (Theog. 188–206), or in the Homeric version (see
Apollodorus (9), author of a very useful complete collection of the Greek myths, the Bibliotheca (‘library’), which was attributed, in antiquity and by *Photius, to no. (6) above. But a reference to *Castor of Rhodes (2. 1. 3) rules this out on chronological grounds, not to mention more general considerations. Apollodorus may have written in the 2nd cent. AD, and may indeed, like no. (6), have been an Athenian, or perhaps have come from east Greece. It is usual to sneer at the Bibliotheca, which was no doubt a derivative work. But it is a tour de force of organization—a mass of proper names and genealogical information subordinated to an essentially narrative principle—and is highly readable. See
J. D. Mikalson
Alan H. Griffiths
Daughter of a Lydian dyer who challenged *Athena to a weaving contest. No doubt her story was originally a cautionary tale like those of *Thamyris and *Marsyas (1), warning against the inevitable failure and dire consequences of such presumption; but in the only extant literary version (Ov. Met. 6. 5–145) the emphasis is all on the insolent brilliance of the tapestry she weaves. Her catalogue of the sexual outrages of the gods, clearly designed to provoke the virgin goddess, outclasses Athena's routine effort and drives her to destroy Arachne's work and attack her. Only after the girl has hanged herself in distress does Athena transform her into a spider, fated to re-enact her compulsive web-making for ever after. It is possible that a Corinthian aryballos of c.600
Denoting genealogical origins, political beginnings, and leadership, archēgetēs was a cult-title of heroic progenitors of families or tribes (Ath. pol. 21. 6; see
Arcisius (Ἁρκείσιος), in mythology, father of Laertes and grandfather of *Odysseus; his own parentage is variously given. In one story, his mother was a she-bear (Ἀρκείσιος—ἅρκτος, ‘bear’), Aristotle in Etym. Magn. 144. 25.