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Demetrius (21), of Apamea, Herophilean physician, 2nd cent. BCE?  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. No Herophilean was more famous for his contributions to *pathology. In On Affections 1–12 and in Signs (or Semiotics) he discussed the symptoms ... More

Democedes, of Croton, 6th cent. BCE  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Democedes of *Croton (6th cent. bce), one of the most famous doctors (see medicine) of his time (Hdt. 3. 125), and origin of Croton's medical reputation (Hdt. 3. 131), practised in *Aegina, *Athens, ... More

dentistry  

Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Dentistry in antiquity was part of general *medicine; diseases of the teeth were explained and treated in accordance with the theories on other diseases. The operative technique was excellent (the ... More

diagnosis  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Diagnosis (διάγνωσις, Lat. cognitio), lit. ‘the means of distinguishing, or recognizing’. The concept of diagnosis is important in ancient forensic oratory and law, but the most extended accounts of ... More

diagrams  

Courtney Ann Roby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Illustrations were extremely rare in ancient literary texts. They were only occasionally used in medical texts, principally Apollonius of Citium, Dioscorides, and perhaps Soranus; references survive ... More

Didymus (3), 'the musician', author of writings on harmonics  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Author of significant writings on harmonics. (See music § 5.) His novel techniques on the monochord and his original, rather straightforward tetrachordal divisions are closely criticized ... More

dietetics  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Many ancient medical authorities believed that therapeutic medicine had its origins in the gradual discovery of connections between health and the regulation of one's day-to-day life ... More

Diocles (3), from Carystus on Euboea, physician  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In several ancient medical canons (e.g. Vindicianus, De med 2, fr. 2 Wellmann) he is placed second in fame only to *Hippocrates (2). His writings survive only in quotations, and there are serious ... More

Diocles (4), mathematician, c. 200 BCE  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Diocles (4), mathematician (c. 200 bce), wrote Περὶ πυρείων (On Burning-Mirrors), preserved in Arabic translation. This treats both spherical and parabolic mirrors (giving the first proof ... More

Diodorus (4), of *Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer, 1st cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Diodorus (4) of *Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer (1st cent. bce), wrote a work, Analemma, on the construction of plane sundials by methods of descriptive geometry. Only the ... More

Diophantus  

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Diophantus of *Alexandria (1) (date uncertain, between 150 bce and ce 280), mathematician, wrote an algebraic work on indeterminate equations, Ἀριθμητικά, in thirteen books, of which six ... More

Dioscorides (2), of Cilician Anazarbus, medical writer, 1st cent. CE  

John M. Riddle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Dioscorides (2) (Pedanius Dioscorides) (1st cent. ce), of Cilician Anazarbus, wrote an extensive, five-book work on the drugs employed in medicine. Dioscorides studied under Areius of Tarsus and ... More

Dioscurides (2), 'Phakas', Herophilean physician  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Dioscurides (2), nicknamed ‘Phakas’, possibly because of the moles or marks (φακοί) on his face (as Suidaδ 1206 claims), practised medicine in *Alexandria (1) in the 1st cent. bce as a member of the ... More

disease  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Disease, the main cause of death in antiquity, is a topic for which there are more sources than for most aspects of life in the ancient world, thanks principally to the Hippocratic corpus (see ... More

Dositheus (1), of Pelusium, astronomer, fl. c. 230 BCE  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Pupil of the astronomer *Conon (2). He continued a connection between the Alexandrian astronomers and *Archimedes which had begun with the latter's studies in *Alexandria (1); Archimedes dedicated ... More

earthquakes  

Paul Cartledge and Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The Mediterranean is a zone of intense earthquake activity because the plates carrying Africa and Europe are slowly moving together, according to the theory of plate tectonics. Notable earthquakes in ... More

eclipses  

A. T. Grafton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Solar and lunar eclipses rank with the most impressive celestial phenomena. They were widely considered ominous—as the story of *Nicias (1)'s final defeat in Sicily shows—and some 250 reports of them ... More

elements  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
στοιχεῖα (Lat. elementa) gradually became the standard Greek word for ‘elements’, and it was used with a range of senses similar to the English term used to translate it. Etymologically it means ‘one ... More

embatērion  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The ἐμβατήριον was properly a marching-tune (Polyb. 4. 20. 12). Hence it was also a marching-song, such as the Spartans sang when under arms (Ath. 630 f; schol. Dion. Thrax 450. 27), like ... More

embryology  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Several barely intelligible accounts of animal reproduction (and in particular of the origins and development of the human embryo) are preserved amongst the fragments of the Presocratic philosophers. ... More

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