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Antonius (Pietas), Lucius  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius, Lucius, third son of M. *Antonius (Creticus), was quaestor in Asia 50 bce and in charge of the province for part of 49. As tribune 44, he carried a law allowing Caesar to appoint half the ... More

Antonius Primus, Marcus, b. c. 20 CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius Primus, Marcus, born c. 20 ce at *Tolosa (Toulouse) in Narbonese Gaul, was according to *Tacitus (1) ‘energetic, eloquent, skilled in stirring up feeling against others, effective in time of ... More

Antonius Saturninus, Lucius  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius Saturninus, Lucius, *suffect consul ce ?82, commander of the army of Upper Germany, revolted at *Mogontiacum (probably 1 January ce 89). Hearing the news *Domitian marched north ... More

Antonius, Marcus (1), Roman censor and orator, 97–96 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius, Marcus, praetor pro consule 102 bce, then proconsul, fought against the Cilician pirates (see cilicia; piracy), triumphed late in 100, after participating in the action against L. ... More

Antonius, Marcus (2), Roman consul and triumvir, d. 31 BCE  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius (2), Marcus, ‘Mark Antony’, Roman statesman and general. The truth of his career and personality has been heavily overlaid by legend, as first hostile propaganda presented him as a villain, ... More

Antonius Pallas, Marcus  

Ronald Syme

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antonius Pallas, Marcus, freedman of *Antonia (3) and financial secretary (a rationibus) of her son, the emperor Claudius; brother of (?Claudius) *Felix. His wealth, success, and arrogant temper made ... More

Appuleius Decianus, Gaius  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Appuleius Decianus, Gaius, son of P. *Decius Subulo, apparently adopted by a relative of L. *Appuleius Saturninus, as tribune 99 bce prosecuted P. Furius (tribune 100), incidentally expressing regret ... More

Appuleius Saturninus, Lucius  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, of praetorian family and a good popular orator, as quaestor at *Ostia (probably 105 bce) was superseded in his *curaannonae by M. *Aemilius Scaurus (1) and turned against ... More

Apronius, Lucius, suffect consul, 8 CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Lucius Apronius (suffect consul 8 ce), served as legate on *Germanicus' German campaign (15), receiving triumphal ornaments; similarly honoured as proconsul of Africa (18–21) in the war against ... More

Aquilius Regulus, Marcus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Marcus Aquilius Regulus, of aristocratic background, recouped his family fortunes after his father's exile by securing under *Nero the conviction of three consulars on capital charges, ... More

Aquil(l)ius Gallus, Gaius  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A lawyer of equestrian family and a leading pupil of Q. *Mucius Scaevola (2), Gaius Aquil Gallus was praetor in 66 bce but thereafter retired to Cercina and devoted himself to legal study. ... More

Aquillius, Manius (1), Roman consul, 129 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Manius Aquillius, Roman consul 129 bce, succeeded M. *Perperna (1) in Asia and completed the war against the allies of *Aristonicus (1). With the help of a senatorial commission he delimited and ... More

Aquillius, Manius (2), Roman consul, 101 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Son of (1), chief legate of C. *Marius (1) against the *Cimbri, and his colleague as consul 101 bce. He crushed the slave revolt in Sicily, personally killing the rebel leader. He celebrated an ... More

Archelaus (3), Greek general of Mithradates VI, 1st cent. BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Distinguished Greek general of *Mithradates VI, perhaps from *Sinope or *Amisus. After overrunning Bithynia and most of central Greece (‘First Mithradatic War’, 88–85 bce), he was twice defeated by ... More

Archelaus (5), king of Cappadocia, 36 BCE–17 CE  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Great-grandson of *Archelaus (3), last king of *Cappadocia from 36 bce when M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony) installed him. Augustus not only continued him in his kingdom but apparently saved him from ... More

Aretas  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aretas, the name of several kings of the *Nabataeans (Nabataean Aramaic form ḥrtt). reigned in the early 2nd cent. bce (c.168). (c.120–96 bce, possibly = the Arab king ... More

Ariovistus  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ariovistus, king of the *Suebi, invaded Gaul c.71 bce at the invitation of the Sequani, defeated the *Aedui, and withstood a combined Gallic attempt to eject him. The senate ratified his conquests by ... More

armies, Roman, monarchy to 3rd cent. CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Traditionally, King Servius *Tullius (c.580–530 bce), made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so ... More

Arminius, b. c. 19 BCE  

Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arminius, born c. 19 bce, war-chief of the *Cherusci, son of Sigimer. He had Roman citizenship, and served long in the auxiliary forces, attaining equestrian rank. In ce 9 he lured P. *Quinctilius ... More

Arria (1), 'the Elder', wife of A. Caecina Paetus, d. 42 CE  

Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arria the Elder, the wife of A. Caecina Paetus, celebrated for her courage and self-control. Thus when her husband was condemned by *Claudius for his part in the conspiracy of L. *Arruntius Camillus ... More

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