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dictator  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
An extraordinary supreme magistracy at Rome, used first in military, later in domestic crises.In Latin cities we find the name ‘dictator’ given to a regular magistracy, but there is no evidence that ... More

Domitius Ulpianus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Domitius Ulpianus came from *Tyre where an inscription honouring him has recently been found. He followed an equestrian career in Rome, drafting rescripts (replies to petitions; see constitutions; ... More

ducenarii  

George Ronald Watson and Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
*Augustus, probably in 4 ce (Cass. Dio 55. 13) added to the three existing jury panels (decuriae) consisting of equestrians (see equites), a fourth decuria recruited from ducenarii, i.e. inhabitants ... More

duumviri navales  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Two officers elected by the Roman people to ‘repair and equip the fleet’, were first established by a tribunician lex Decia in 311 bce (Livy 9. 30. 4). The measure is probably to be ... More

edict  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
The higher Roman magistrates (praetors, aediles, quaestors, censors, the governors of provinces) proclaimed by edicts the steps which they intended to take in the discharge of their office. Formally ... More

education, Roman  

J. V. Muir

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by ... More

elections and voting, Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
At Rome adult male citizens had the right to vote to elect the annual magistrates, to make laws, to declare war and peace, and, until the development of the public courts in the late republic, to try ... More

emancipation  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Emancipation, in the modern sense means freeing from slavery; for this sense see slavery. The present article is concerned with the technical term of Roman law. Emancipation of this sort is the ... More

emphyteusis  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
In late Roman law a lease in perpetuity or for a long term. It was more akin to ownership than to an ordinary lease, and the emperor Zeno (c.ce 480) resolved a controversy by ruling that it was sui ... More

endowments  

David Johnston

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
The ancient world was unfamiliar with the modern notion of a foundation whose funds are vested in itself. Endowments in antiquity were set up by vesting property in a public or private body, and ... More

evidence, Roman  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Evidence, in the sense of the methods by which the facts at issue in a legal proceeding are established, was of little interest to the Roman jurists. For them the proof of facts was the concern of ... More

exile, Roman  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Exile, either undertaken voluntarily to escape a penalty (usually death), or imposed as a punishment, was common in the ancient world. In Rome it was originally voluntary. A person threatened by ... More

fasces  

Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comprised bundles of rods, approximately 1.5 m. (5 ft.) long and of elm- or birchwood, and a single-headed axe; they were held together by red thongs and carried by *lictores. An iron set from a late ... More

fideicommissa  

David Johnston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
A Roman testator could choose, in disposing of his estate, between the formal methods of the *ius civile (civil law), will and legacy, and the informal device of fideicommissum (roughly ‘trust’); or ... More

fiscus  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fiscus originally meant ‘basket’ or ‘money-bag’ and thence came to denote the private funds of an individual or, in an administrative context, to mean the public funds held by a provincial governor. ... More

Flavius, Gnaeus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Gnaeus Flavius, who lived around 300 bce, was the son of a freedman of Appius *Claudius Caecus, whose secretary he became. Sextus *Pomponius says that he purloined and published a manuscript compiled ... More

foedus  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Foedus means a treaty, solemnly enacted, which established friendship, peace and alliance between Rome and another state in perpetuity. A foedus was distinct from indutiae (‘truce’), which ended a ... More

free cities  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Free cities (civitates liberae, eleutherai poleis) formed a privileged category in Rome's system of provincial government. In the east the status ultimately derived from the blanket declaration of ... More

freedmen, freedwomen  

M. I. Finley and Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Emancipated slaves were more prominent in Roman society (little is known of other Italian societies before their enfranchisement) than in Greek city-states or Hellenistic kingdoms (see slavery). In ... More

freedom in the ancient world  

K. Raaflaub

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
On the individual and social levels, the distinction between free and unfree is as old as slavery, and individual or collective freedom from dues, taxes, and other obligations as old as communities ... More

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