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Bulla Regia  

R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A town in the Bagradas valley in North Africa. A large building of c.100/80 bce, a defensive circuit, and burials bear witness to the Numidian period (see numidia), when it was a royal ... More

Burdigala  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Burdigala (mod. Bordeaux), capital of the Bituriges Vivisci and, eventually, of *Aquitania, was a busy international trading-port (with strong British links). Important remains include an ... More

Buxentum  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Buxentum (mod. Policastro), a Roman colony, founded in 194 bce on the Greek city of Pyxus, itself a colony of *Rhegium. Livy (34. 5. 1, 39. 23. 3) says that it was unsuccessful, despite a ... More

Caesaraugusta  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caesaraugusta (mod. Zaragoza), in NE central Spain. An Augustan colonia and early mint with rectangular layout (895m.×513m.: 979×561 yds.) and settled by *veterans of the Cantabrian Wars (IV, VI, ... More

Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, George Ewart Bean, and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia (formerly Mazaca, mod. Kayseri) was created by *Cappadocian kings to be their capital. The *philhellene*Ariarathes V gave it a Greek constitution (the laws of *Charondas) ... More

Caesarea (3), capital city of Mauretania Caesariensis  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caesarea (3), mod. Cherchel, on the coast of Algeria. Probably founded as a Punic trading-station, known as Iol, the oldest finds date to c.500 bce. Defences were constructed towards the end of the ... More

Cales  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cales (mod. Calvi), an *Auruncan city, c. 47 km. (29 mi.) north of Naples. It was a strategic point, controlling communications between *Latium and *Samnium, and was occupied from the 7th ... More

Calleva Atrebatum  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Calleva Atrebatum, mod. Silchester, on the Hampshire–Berkshire border. The Roman town was civitas-capital of the *Atrebates (2) and succeeded an enclosed iron age oppidum. This was founded in the 1st ... More

cameos  

Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hardstones such as agate or sardonyx, shell, and glass were carved three-dimensionally into vessels, plaques, ring-stones, or pendants so as to take advantage of the contrasting colours of different ... More

camps  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
When *Polybius (1) (6. 27–32) described the construction of a military camp (castra) c.143 bce, he was referring to a well-established practice. *Livy, writing of 294 bce, assumes the existence of a ... More

Campus Martius  

Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comprised most of the Tiber flood-plain bounded by the Pincian, Quirinal, and Capitoline hills. Taking its name from an altar to Mars, it was originally pasture outside the *pomerium, and therefore ... More

Camulodunum  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Camulodunum (mod. Colchester, Essex). A large area, including the site of the later town, comprised an iron age *oppidum from the Augustan period. It was surrounded by substantial ... More

Canusium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chief city of *Daunia (Plin. HN 3. 104, Procop. Goth. 3. 18). It was not a Greek foundation (Strabo 6. 3. 7), but there was extensive Hellenization (see hellenism) from the 4th cent. bce onwards, in ... More

Capitol/Capitolium  

Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with ... More

Capreae  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Capreae (now Capri), a precipitous small island off the Sirens’ shrine on the Promontorium Minervae of the Bay of *Naples, and part of Naples’ territory until Augustus appropriated it for ... More

Capsa  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Capsa (mod. Gafsa), an oasis in southern Tunisia. Originally a considerable Libyan settlement (*Jugurtha used it as a treasury: Strabo 17. 3. 12), it was destroyed by C. *Marius (1) in 106 ... More

Carnuntum  

Franz A. W. Schehl and John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Carnuntum, on the Danube (*Danuvius) between Petronell and Deutsch-Altenburg, was an important Roman military base and the seat of government of *Pannonia (Upper). At first part of *Noricum, ... More

carpentry, Roman  

Jean-Pierre Adam

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The skilled work of the Roman carpenter (lignarius or tignarius faber) was essential to the construction of domestic and public buildings, creation of machines and structures for military ... More

Carrara  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a ... More

Carsulae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Carsulae, on the *via Flaminia in Umbria, near *Narnia. It was rarely mentioned, but Vespasian's army stopped there in ce 69 (Tac. Hist. 3. 60). Extensive excavations have revealed the ... More

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