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devotio  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ritual to devote either enemies or oneself (or both) to gods of the Underworld and death. *Macrobius (Sat. 3. 9. 9 ff.) records that in ancient times enemy cities were devoted (devoveri) to gods of ... More

Diana  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Diana (root †dyw-‘the bright one’ (cf. *Jupiter), originally a moon goddess, contraAltheim, Griechische Götter im alten Rom (1930), 93 ff.), an Italian goddess anciently identified with *Artemis, ... More

Didascalia Apostolorum  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Didascalia Apostolorum (The Catholic Teaching of the Twelve Apostles of the Redeemer), a Church order originally written in Greek, but completely preserved only in Syriac translation. It claims ... More

Dido  

Cyril Bailey and Philip Hardie

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Legendary queen of *Carthage, daughter of a Phoenician king of Tyre, called Belus by *Virgil. According to *Timaeus (2), the earliest extant source for her story, her *Phoenician name was Elissa, and ... More

Didyma  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oracular shrine of *Apollo (see oracles), located about 16 km. (10 mi.) south of *Miletus. In the Archaic period, it was administered by a priestly clan, the Branchidae, and rose to great prominence ... More

Divalia (Angeronalia)  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Roman festival on 21 December to the goddess *Angerona. The Fasti Praenestini describe her statue's mouth as bandaged and connect this with Rome's ‘secret name’.

divination, Roman  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
All divination stems from the belief that gods send meaningful messages. These messages were classified in a variety of intersecting ways: according to the character of signs through which the ... More

divisio  

M. Winterbottom

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Divisio, Gk. diairesis, was, in declamation, the teacher's separation of a case into its constituent arguments. The process could be very intricate, as we see in the Diairesis zētēmatōn (‘Division of ... More

Divitiacus (1), Aeduan Druid, 1st cent. BCE  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Divitiacus (1) (1st cent. bce), an Aeduan Druid, whose career typifies the political division that exposed Gaul to conquest. His policy of inviting Roman aid against aggressors (unsuccessfully in 61 ... More

dreams  

Simon Price

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Dreams fascinated the ancients as much as they do us, though it is illegitimate to employ Freudian categories in interpreting ancient dreams: their categories must not be subverted by our own ... More

ecstasy  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In classical Greek the term ἔκστασις may refer to any situation in which (part of) the mind or body is removed from its normal place or function. It is used for bodily displacements, but also for ... More

Egeria  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Egeria, water goddess, worshipped with *Diana at Aricia (V. Aen. 7. 762–4, 775), apparently with the *Camenae outside the porta Capena in Rome (see Rodríguez Almeida below). Her name may be connected ... More

Egyptian deities  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Graeco-Roman view of Egyptian religion is sharply fissured. Despite Herodotus 2. 50. 1 (comm. A. B. Lloyd, 1975–88), many writers of all periods, and probably most individuals, found in the ... More

epigraphy, Etruscan  

Jean Turfa

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The study of the inscriptions written in the Etruscan language and alphabet, usually texts incised on stone, pottery, or metal objects, or occasionally on more fragile media such as ink-on-cloth. ... More

Epitadeus  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Putative Spartan *ephor. According to Plutarch, Agis 5, he introduced, some time after the *Peloponnesian War, a law authorizing the gift or bequest of property, thereby undermining ... More

epithets, divine, Roman  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Each deity had its name, but this name could be hidden (cf. Brelich) or unknown (hence the formula in addresses ‘whether god or goddess’, sive deus, sive dea, cf. Alvar). If it was known, and could ... More

Epona  

James Rives

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A Celtic goddess known from dedications that are found from Spain to the Balkans, and northern Britain to Italy. Her name derives from the Celtic word for ‘horse’, and the most common iconography of ... More

Equirria  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Two Roman festivals of horse-racing on 27 February and 14 March (Ov. Fast. 2. 857 ff., 3. 517 ff.). The first was founded by *Romulus (Varro, Ling. 6. 13) and the second was connected with the ... More

eunuchs, religious  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the Classical period, religious eunuchs are a feature of several Anatolian cults of female deities, extending across to Scythia (Hdt. 4. 67: not shamans) and to the southern foothills of the ... More

evocatio  

Mary Beard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A ritual by which, in the course of a war, a Roman general would attempt to deprive the enemy of divine protection, by formally offering their protecting deity a new home and cult at Rome. The ... More

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