Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter
Asisium (mod. Assisi), birthplace (probably) of *Propertius, *municipium of *Umbria on the western slopes of the Apennines. It played little part in history until captured by Totila c.
An impregnable site in the southern Troad (*Troas), facing south towards *Lesbos (it was originally colonized from *Methymna) and controlling the coast road. The *harbour is artificial. The public buildings, including a council-house, market stoas, and temple grouped around the Hellenistic agora, rose in steep terraces up to the acropolis, where the remains of a peripteral Doric temple of the 6th cent.
H. Kathryn Lomas
Atella, *Campanian city, in the Clanis valley. The site was inhabited from the 7th cent.
D. W. R. Ridgway
Ateste (mod. Este) has given its name to one of the principal iron age cultures of northern Italy, lasting from the 9th cent.
Max Cary and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond
A headland on the easternmost of the Chalcidian promontories (see
H. Kathryn Lomas
Duane W. Roller
The Atlantic Ocean (literally “the Ocean of Atlas”) was known to Greeks since the time of Homer, but the term did not come into use until the 5th century
Much of the early Greek exploration of the Atlantic was due to Massalians, who by 500
The greatest Greek explorer of the Atlantic was Pytheas of Massalia, who in the latter 4th century
The Atlantic islands were also explored, in part. There is evidence for contact with the Madeiras and Canaries, and less certain information about the Cape Verdes and Azores. There is, however, no reliable evidence that anyone from Graeco-Roman antiquity crossed the Atlantic and returned to report on it: casual finds of antiquities in the New World are generally dismissed. Yet exploration of the Atlantic led to the development of tidal theories—tides in the Mediterranean are minimal—first by Pytheas, and then later by Poseidonius and others.
The Romans added little to ancient knowledge of the Atlantic, although they explored the region between the British Isles and Scandinavia, which they named the North Sea. But a series of maritime disasters in the early 1st century
Herbert Jennings Rose and Antony Spawforth
R. J. A. Wilson
D. W. R. Ridgway
Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway
Augusta Traiana or Beroe (mod. Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) was a Roman city of *Thrace founded by Trajan to replace the Thracian-Hellenistic Beroe in the north of the Thracian plain, controlling a huge territory extending from the Haemus range (Stara planina) in the north to the Rhodope mountains in the south. The 2nd-cent. walls enclose an area of 48.5 ha. (120 acres), within which several streets and public buildings have been excavated. In the late empire the city was again known as Beroe and is described by Ammianus (27. 4. 12) as one of the ‘spacious cities’ (amplae civitates) of Thrace. After being sacked by the *Huns, by the 6th cent. (according to Procop. Aed. 4. 11. 19) it was in need of repair and was fortified with a massive new double wall. It was again sacked, by the *Slavs or Avars, around 600.
John Frederick Drinkwater
Augusta Treverorum (mod. Trier), *civitas-capital of the *Treveri, developed from a settlement around a fort established under Augustus to guard a crossing of the Moselle. In the early empire Trier became the seat of the imperial procurator of Belgica and the Germanies (see