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neutrality  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Neutrality, a word with no single Greek or Latin equivalent. In Greek, the idea is expressed by terms meaning e.g. ‘keeping quiet’, ‘helping neither side’. Individuals may be neutral between parties, ... More

nomophylakes  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Nomophylakes (νομοφύλακες) were ‘guardians of the laws’. In Athens, according to one authority (*Philochorus), officials with this title were instituted when *Ephialtes(4) ... More

nomothetai  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Nomothetai (νομοθέται), ‘law-makers’, were usually individuals like *Draco and *Solon, but in Athens in the late 5th and the 4th cent. bce large groups with this title were appointed. The earliest ... More

officials, Greek, accountability of  

Pierre Fröhlich

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Subject:
Greek Law
From the end of the Archaic era to the end of the Hellenistic period, all officials of Greek cities were required to render their accounts (euthynai) through procedures, which varied ... More

oligarchy, the rule of the few  

Victor Ehrenberg and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Oligarchy (‘the rule of the few’), with monarchy (see kingship) and democracy one of the three basic categories of constitution commonly used by the Greeks from the 5th cent. bce onwards. Whereas a ... More

ostracism  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Ostracism in Athens in the 5th cent. bce was a method of banishing a citizen for ten years (cf. exile, Greek). Each year in the sixth *prytany the question whether an ostracism should be held that ... More

ownership, Greek ideas about  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
There was no Greek term for ‘ownership’. For *Aristotle (Rhet. 1361a21) the mark of a thing being one's own is that one is free to give or sell it, but under Classical Athenian law a man could sell ... More

papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of ... More

paragraphē  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Paragraphē (παραγραφή) in Athenian law was a procedure for objecting that a prosecution was inadmissible because it was in some way contrary to law. Before the main trial (εὐθυδικία) could proceed, ... More

patrios politeia  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Patrios politeia, ‘ancestral constitution (or way of life)’, slogan apparently (but see below) used in the late 5th cent. bce at Athens by proponents of *oligarchy, as a reassuring but fraudulent way ... More

patronomos  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Patronomos (πατρονόμος), official instituted c.227 bce by *Cleomenes (2) III (Paus. 2. 9. 1) in his reform of Sparta's polity, attested from the 1st cent. bce as Sparta's eponymous magistrate. Roman ... More

perioikoi, 'dwellers round about'  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Perioikoi ‘dwellers round about’, was the name employed usually to describe neighbouring people frequently constituting groups of subjects or half-citizens, normally with local self-government; but ... More

phratries  

S. D. Lambert

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Phratries (φρατρίαι, with dialectal variations), in Greek states, groups with hereditary membership and probably normally associated with specific localit (ies). The members were ‘phrateres’, related ... More

phylai  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
The Greek word phyle, usually but misleadingly translated ‘tribe’, was widely but not universally used in the Greek world to denote the principal components or divisions of the citizen body. Their ... More

Pittacus, of Mytilene, c. 650–570 BCE  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Pittacus of *Mytilen (c. 650–570 bce), statesman, lawgiver, and sage. He commanded in the war against Athens for *Sigeum, on which *Periander of Corinth later arbitrated (see arbitration); ... More

Pnyx  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pnyx, hill at Athens, 400 m. (c.440 yds.) south-west of the *Agora, where the Classical assembly or *ekklēsia usually met. The auditorium was reconstructed, and its orientation altered, at the end of ... More

polemarchos  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Polemarchos (πολέμαρχος), one of the nine *archontes appointed annually in Athens. The name indicates that the polemarchos' original function was to command the army; presumably the office was ... More

pōlētai  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Pōlētai (πωληταί) ‘sellers’, were Athenian officials. The date of their institution is not known, but they already existed in the time of *Solon. In *Aristotle's time there were ten, ... More

police  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In any discussion of police it is necessary to distinguish between the function of policing, that is, maintaining public order and enforcing the law, and the existence of a specialized agency of ... More

polis  

Oswyn Murray

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Polis (pl. poleis), the Greek city-state. The polis is the characteristic form of Greek urban life; its main features are small size, political *autonomy, social homogeneity, sense of community and ... More

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