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Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greek cities, the gymnasium originated as a place of exercise for the citizens specifically to fit the *epheboi for the rigours of service as *hoplites. At first no more than an open space, with a ... More


Frederick Adam Wright, Robert Leslie Howland, and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Haltēres were pieces of iron or stone used by Greek long jumpers. Shaped and gripped like modern dumb-bells, they normally weighed between 1.4 and 2.3 kilos (3–5 lb.). The long jump was a standing ... More


Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime ... More

Heraclea (2) by Latmus  

Antony Spawforth

Heraclea (2) by Latmus, a city of *Caria allegedly founded by *Endymion, on the slope of Mt. Latmus, c. 25 km. (15½ mi.) east of Miletus; in antiquity it stood at the head of an Aegean gulf gradually ... More


Richard Allan Tomlinson

Sanctuary of *Hera. The most important are the Heraion of *Argos(1), and the Heraion of *Samos. Both are situated at some distance from the cities which controlled or dominated them. The ... More

Hermogenes (1), Greek architect  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hermogenes (1), a Greek architect from *Alabanda in Caria (Vitr. De arch. 3. 2. 6). His date is a matter of debate, though a floruit c.170 bce seems probable. His chief works are the temple of ... More


John F. Lazenby and P. J. Rhodes

In a number of Greek states the aristocracy was known as the ‘hippeis’ (e.g. *Eretria and Boeotian *Orchomenus(1); and cf. the ‘hippobotai’, of *Chalcis and, below, the Spartan élite (§ 3) and ... More

Hippodamus, of Miletus  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Hippodamus of *Miletus, was the most famous Greek town-planner. He was born probably about 500 bce. Ancient authorities speak of his nemēsis or allocation of sites. Towards the middle of ... More


Robert Sallares

Honey (μέλι; mel), the chief sweetener known to the ancients, who understood apiculture (Arist.Hist. an. 623b5–627b22; Verg. G. bk. 4) and appreciated the different honey-producing qualities of ... More

horse- and chariot-races  

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, ... More

houses, Greek  

Michael H. Jameson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Private houses of the Classical and Hellenistic periods were basically the same throughout the Greek world. Most rooms opened onto one or more sides of a small, rectangular courtyard, as did a ... More


John Kinloch Anderson

Epic heroes (see homer) hunt to fill their bellies or to rid the land of dangerous beasts (Hom. Od. 9. 154–48, 10. 157–63; Il. 9. 533–49). The boar is the most formidable antagonist; venison is ... More


Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ictinus was one of a number of fine *architects who worked at Athens in the time of *Pericles(1). In conjunction with *Callicrates(1) he designed the *Parthenon and with a certain Carpion, otherwise ... More


Hector Catling

Idalium (mod. Dhali), a small inland city of *Cyprus, in a long-populated area (perhaps the ‘Edi'al’ of the Esarhaddon prism), was 16 km. (10 mi.) SSE of Nicosia, on the south side of the ... More


Robin Osborne

The identification of scenes in sculpture, painting, and the minor arts has long been a major activity of classical *archaeology, although it has traditionally been accorded less emphasis than the ... More


Daniel Potts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Is the general name given to a variety of aromatic gum-resins which, when heated, produce a fragrant odour. Often used interchangeably with frankincense (Gk. λίβανος (probably a direct loan from ... More


Catherine A. Morgan

Isthmia (sanctuary of *Poseidon), a Corinthian *Panhellenic shrine 16 km. (10 mi.) east of *Corinth, beside the modern Athens–Corinth road. A hippodrome and hero shrine (West Foundation) lie 2 km. ... More

javelin, throwing the  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The javelin (ἄκων) was a spear about 2.5 m. (8 ft.) long, probably with a metal point. Round the middle was bound a thong with a loop through which the athlete placed his first finger, or first and ... More

keys and locks  

Frederick Norman Pryce

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The primitive Greek door-fastening was a horizontal bolt working in staples behind the door (μοχλὸς θύρας, ὀχεύς; sera, claustrum). From the outside the bolt was drawn by a strap passing through a ... More


Simon Hornblower

Labraunda, sanctuary of *Zeus Labraundos in *Caria, between *Mylasa (to which it was linked by a sacred way) and *Amyzon, occupying a mountainous and beautiful position. (Hdt. 5. 119 speaks of Zeus ... More