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Jordanes  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
An historian who worked c.550ce, almost certainly in *Constantinople. Of Gothic descent (see goths), he had worked as a military secretary before his conversio (see conversion), probably to a ... More

Jovian, Roman emperor  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Jovian became Roman emperor when, as the senior staff officer (protector domesticus) serving in the Persian campaign of *Julian, he was proclaimed Augustus (see augustus, augusta as titles) on the ... More

Justina, wife of the emperor Valentinian I and mother of the emperor Valentinian II  

Meaghan McEvoy

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The empress Justina was the second wife of the emperor Valentinian I, and mother to the emperor Valentinian II and his three sisters, Galla, Grata, and Justa. Justina herself seems to have been a ... More

Justinian, Roman emperor, 527–565 CE  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Justinian (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus), eastern Roman emperor 527–65 ce. He was born c. 482 at Tauresium, near Bederiana in *Thrace, a place subsequently graced with the city of Justiniana ... More

'Lactantius Placidus'  

R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

‘Lactantius Placidus’, the name under which is transmitted a commentary on *Statius' Thebais dating (in its original form) to the 5th or 6th cent. ce (ed. Jahnke, 1898: inadequate).

Leo (2) I, Roman emperor  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Leo (2) I (emperor), born in *Daciac. 400 ce, was a military officer until becoming Augustus (see augustus, augusta as titles) at *Constantinople (457–74) through the influence of the Alan Aspar. A ... More

Libanius  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Libanius, born at *Antioch (1) (ce 314), died there (c.393), was a pagan Greek rhetorician whose writings embodied many of the traditional ideals and aspirations of elite life in the eastern Roman ... More

Licentius, of Thagaste  

Otto Skutsch

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Licentius, of Thagaste, friend and (probably) relation of St *Augustine to whom (395 ce) he addressed a poem on the difficulty of understanding music and sought Augustine's guidance, asking for a ... More

Licinius, Valerius Licinianus, Roman emperor  

Simon Corcoran

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Roman emperor Licinius was born c.260 ce of humble stock in new *Dacia. He served under *Galerius in the Persian war (296–7) and was later sent to negotiate with *Maxentius in Rome (307). ... More

limitanei  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Limitanei, collective term for units of the late-Roman frontier armies so called because they occupied permanent stations on the frontiers (limites, see limes), as distinct ... More

Lombards  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lombards, or Langobardi, a Germanic group, described by Tacitus as few but courageous (Germ. 40). In the 1st cent. ce they lived along the lower Elbe, but by the 160s they were threatening the upper ... More

Luxorius, of Carthage  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Luxorius or Luxurius, author of some 90 short poems, in various metres and on various subjects, which afford an insight into the Vandal society of North Africa in which they were written. His ... More

Lydus  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lydus, i.e. John the Lydian, civil servant at *Constantinople and Greek author (490–c.560 ce). John, son of Laurentius, native of *Philadelphia (2) in Lydia, was well educated in Latin and Greek ... More

Madaba Map  

Richard J. A. Talbert

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This damaged, but still striking, floor-mosaic map offers a unique and invaluable example of late antique cartography, as well as the earliest surviving vision of the Holy Land. The map was ... More

magister memoriae, epistularum, libellorum  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
These three ‘masters’ replaced the imperial secretaries a memoria, ab epistulis, and a libellis, in control of the bureaux (scrinia) in the late Roman secretariat. They are first attested in the 290s ... More

magister militum  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Magister militum, ‘master of the soldiers’. *Constantine I deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions, and to command his enlarged mobile army appointed two new generals, the ... More

magister officiorum  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The ‘master of the offices’ is first attested in the early 320s ce at the courts of both *Constantine I and *Licinius; so he may be Diocletianic (see Diocletian). He originally held the rank of ... More

Magnentius, Flavius Magnus  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Flavius Magnus Magnentius, from a family of barbarian settlers in Gaul, rose to a senior military command under the emperor *Constans. In January ce 350 at Autun (*Augustodunum) he led a coup which ... More

Magnus, of Carrhae  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Magnus of *Carrhae, accompanied *Julian on his Persian expedition in 363 ce and wrote an account of it, of which a summary is quoted by *Malalas. His identification with the tribune Magnus who was ... More

Magnus Maximus, Roman emperor, 383–388 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Magnus Maximus, Roman emperor (383–8 ce), was a Spaniard who rose to the command of the troops in Britain, where he fought successfully against Picts and Scots. Elevated by the army in ... More

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