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Empiricists  

Marquis Berrey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Empiricists were a self-identified medical sect of the Hellenistic and Imperial periods who shared a common experiential methodology about the purpose and practice of medicine. Denigrating ... More

Erasistratus  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Erasistratus of Iulis on *Ceos (about 315–240 bce?) is the only scientist other than *Herophilus to whom ancient sources attribute systematic scientific dissections of human cadavers. *Cornelius ... More

Eratocles  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Eratocles (probably late 5th cent. bce), musical theorist discussed by *Aristoxenus, empiricist rather than Pythagorean in approach (Aristox. Harm. 5. 9–6. 31, cf. Pl. Resp. 531a–b). He distinguished ... More

Erotian  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Grammarian and author of the most famous Hippocratic lexicon of antiquity. Lived in the 1st cent. ce.

Euclid  

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Mathematician (date uncertain, between 325 and 250bce). Nothing is known of Euclid's life: the biographical data linking him with *Alexandria ... More

Euctemon, astronomer  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Observed the summer solstice at Athens, together with *Meton, in 432 bce (Ptol. Alm. 3. 1). He is also associated with the Metonic nineteen-year luni-solar cycle. He composed a παράπηγμα, ... More

Eudoxus (1), of Cnidus, mathematician  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Eudoxus of *Cnidus, (c.390–c. 340 bce) was an outstanding mathematician and did important work in *astronomy and geography; he was versatile in ‘philosophy’ in general. According to the not entirely ... More

Eustochius  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Eustochius, of *Alexandria (1), physician, became a pupil of *Plotinus in Plotinus' old age (Porph. Plot.7) (prob. c.270 ce), and is said to have edited his master's works.

experiment  

Geoffrey Lloyd

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Greek and Roman scientists did not refer directly to the experimental method. However, in a variety of contexts they described testing procedures that were clearly deliberate investigations designed ... More

fire  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fire (πῦρ, ignis) has special status in ancient myth, religion, cosmology, physics, and physiology. According to Greek myth, *Prometheus stole it from the gods for mortals with dire consequences, and ... More

Galen, of Pergamum, 129–216 CE  

Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In a spectacular career rose from gladiator physician in Asia Minor to court physician in the Rome of Marcus *Aurelius ... More

Gargilius Martialis, Quintus, early to mid-3rd cent. CE  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quintus Gargilius Martialis was famed for his work on *gardens (Serv. on G. 4. 147; Cassiod.Inst. 1. 28. 5). Part of the De hortis is extant, while two other fragments, on the medical properties of ... More

Gaudentius, c. 4th cent. CE  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
His Introduction to Harmonics contains an intriguing preface, a series of Aristoxenian propositions (1–9, 17–19; see aristoxenus) arranged around and qualified by Pythagorean doctrine ... More

Geminus  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Writer of elementary textbooks on mathematical subjects (probably c.50 bce); see mathematics. His only extant work is Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα (‘Introduction to Astronomy’), which gives a factual ... More

geocentricity  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The theory that the earth lies at the centre of the universe belongs to Greek scientific astronomy and should not be attributed to earlier thinkers such as Anaximander or Pythagoras in the 6th cent. ... More

gestures  

D. Lateiner

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gestures convey attitude, intention, and status. Greeks and Romans moved trunk and limbs to precede, accompany, intensify, undercut, and replace words. Posture, orientation (Soph.OT728), separating ... More

glass  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More

glass, Roman  

H.E.M. Cool

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium bce onwards, but only for jewellery and luxury items like small perfume ... More

gynaecology  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gynaecology existed in the ancient world as a medical specialism, but its separate identity was not always permitted by wider medical theories. The significant question was this: do women have ... More

Hegetor  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. The criticisms of Hegetor by *Ap.(8) of Citium (c.90–15 bce?) provide a terminus ante quem. Hegetor shared other Herophileans' keen interest in ... More

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