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Cambyses  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Cambyses (OP Kābujiya), eldest son of *Cyrus (1); acceded on the death of his father (530 bce). He completed his father's grand plan by conquering Egypt, where he was successful in ... More

camels  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Camels, long domesticated in Arabia and neighbouring lands, were unfamiliar in Anatolia in 546 bce when *Cyrus (1)'s baggage-camels terrified the Lydian horses (Hdt. 1. 80). These may have been ... More

Cappadocia  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cappadocia, at one time designated the whole region between Lake Tatta and the *Euphrates, and from the *Euxine Sea to *Cilicia; but the northern part became ‘Cappadocian Pontus’ or simply ... More

Caria  

John Manuel Cook, Anna Morpurgo Davies, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Mountainous region inhabited by Carians in SW Asia Minor south of the *Maeander, with Greek cities (*Cnidus and *Halicarnassus) occupying the salient peninsulas and mixed communities on the shores of ... More

Carrhae  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Carrhae (Akkadian Harran, Biblical Haran, mod. Harran, SE Turkey), a city of north *Mesopotamia about 40 km. (25 mi.) south-west of *Edessa, an ancient cult centre of the moon-god Sin. The temple of ... More

Carthage, history  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Carthage (Qrtḥdšt ( = ‘New Town’); Καρχήδων; Carthago), a *Phoenician colony and later a major Roman city on the coast of NE Tunisia.According to tradition (Timaeus, FGrH 566 fr. 60) Carthage was ... More

Carthage, topography  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Carthage was founded on part of a large peninsula which stretched eastwards from lagoons into the gulf of Tunis; the isthmus linking it to the mainland further west is c. 5 km. (3 mi.) wide at its ... More

Cattigara  

Ian C. Glover

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Port of the Sinae (see seres) near the mouth of the river Cottaris. Marinus of Tyre mentions a sailor Alexander who, in the 1st cent. ce, sailed to Cattigara on a gulf inhabited by ... More

Chaeremon (2), of Alexandria (1), Greek author, 1st cent. CE  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Chaeremon of *Alexandria (1), where he held a priesthood: Greek writer on Egypt. He taught the young *Nero. His writings treated Egyptian history, religion, customs, astrology, and ... More

Chalybes  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
A people of the SE coast of the Black (*Euxine) Sea, renowned in legend as the first workers of *iron and as the inventors of steel or carburized iron. Archaeology east of *Trapezus offers some ... More

Christodorus  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
(5th–6th cents. ce), poet from *Coptus in Egypt. All that survives complete is an *ekphrasis on the statues decorating the baths of Zeuxippus in *Constantinople, which in diction and ... More

Cineas (1), founder of Ai Khanoum (Afghanistan)  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Cineas (1), (?) Thessalian *founder of *Ai Khanoum (in modern Afghanistan) to whom, as *archēgetēs, *hero-cult was paid, on the evidence of an interesting verse inscription put up at the ... More

Clazomenae  

George Ewart Bean and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Clazomenae (mod. Klazumen), one of the twelve cities of the *Panionium, situated on the south shore of the gulf of Smyrna on a small island joined to the mainland by a causeway. The original ... More

Cleopatra I, c. 215–176 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Daughter of *Antiochus (3) III and *Laodice (3) and wife (from 193) of *Ptolemy (1) V Epiphanes. On Epiphanes’ death in 180 bce she acted as regent for her elder son *Ptolemy (1) VI, and ... More

Cleopatra II, c. 185–116 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Cleopatra II (c. 185–116 BCE), daughter of *Cleopatra I and *Ptolemy (1) V and both sister and wife of first *Ptolemy (1) VI Philometor (from 175) and then (from 145) his successor (and brother) ... More

Cleopatra III  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Cleopatra III, daughter of *Ptolemy (1) VI and *Cleopatra II, was seduced and married by *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II in 140/139 bce. She spent much of her life in conflict with her mother, whom ... More

Cleopatra VII, 69–30 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cleopatra VII (69–30 bce), the final and best known of the Ptolemies, was daughter of *Ptolemy (1) XII (Auletes). On the latter's death in 51 she became queen, alone at first and subsequently with ... More

Cnidus  

John Manuel Cook and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Cnidus, a *Dorian city, founded perhaps c.900 bce, and claiming descent from *Sparta, was situated on a long peninsula (Reşadiye), in the gulf of *Cos (SW Asia Minor), and was a member of the Dorian ... More

colonization, Hellenistic  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
*Plutarch, in the eulogy of his hero *Alexander (3) the Great (De Alex. fort.), made the foundation of cities the linchpin of the achievement of Alexander, who wished to spread Greek civilization ... More

Commagene  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, J. David Hawkins, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Country on the west bank of the upper Euphrates, first known as the neo-Hittite kingdom of Kummuh with a capital of the same name at *Samosata. Its history can be partially reconstructed from ... More

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