C. C. W. Taylor
Dissoi logoi (lit. ‘Double Arguments’, i.e. ‘Arguments For and Against’), a short sophistic work of unknown authorship, written in Doric dialect (see
Martha C. Nussbaum and Paul Cartledge
It is a commonplace that the Greek philosophers had no economic theory. Three reasons are advanced for this absence: (1) the merely embryonic existence of the relevant institutions, especially the market; (2) upper-class disdain for personal involvement in *trade and exchange; (3) the priority assigned to ethical and political concerns over technical considerations of exchange and accumulation. While each of these claims contains some truth, the third assumes a modern conception of the autonomy of economics against which ancient theory may make a pertinent challenge.
*Plato (1)'s discussion of the market is sketchy. The Republic describes the creation of a market in the ‘first city’; *money will be used for internal exchange, and barter for foreign trade. In the Ideal City the lowest class, ruled by bodily appetites, is also called the moneymaking class. The ideal city of Laws 5 will have no money, and strict lower and upper limits on amount of ownership. The market legislation of bks. 8 and 11 permits money, but most transacting is done by aliens; again, the state fixes strict limits to acquisition and ownership.
Ecphantus, a 4th-cent.
Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas
J. V. Muir
Parmenides of Elea, Zeno of Elea, and Melissus of Samos are often considered as a group within Presocratic philosophy because of the supposed similarity of their doctrines. Some ancient reports, drawing on Plato (Soph. 242d), identify Xenophanes of Colophon as their forebear. Although these thinkers were variously associated throughout antiquity, the notion that Parmenides, Zeno, and Melissus comprised a distinct school of thought is more a historiographic invention than a historical reality, given that there were no actual philosophical schools in antiquity prior to the founding of Plato's Academy. In modern times, advocacy of strict monism and the concomitant denial of all change and radical denigration of the evidence of the senses have been regarded as the characteristic doctrines of the Eleatic school. Only Melissus, however, indisputably propounded these views. It has become increasingly controversial whether Parmenides did so and whether Zeno designed his ingenious paradoxes to support them. Although the notion of an Eleatic School is historically unreliable, Parmenides’ profoundly original metaphysical poem should nevertheless be seen as engendering a broader trend of Eleatic-style ontology in works as diverse as Gorgias's On Nature or On What Is Not and the dialectical exercise in Plato's Parmenides.
Although generated by neurobiological processes, emotions (pathe, affectus) also consist in a process of appraisal and individual judgement, which depends on social and cultural norms and individual proclivities. As they heavily influence social relations and the behaviour of individuals and groups, emotions are socially relevant and, consequently, subject to scrutiny, judgement, and normative intervention. They fulfil social functions and follow social rules. Hence, they are potentially subject to change and are shaped by the society in which they operate. Although it can be argued that emotions are a universal phenomenon, they do have a history and are a very important subject of historical research. This applies both to emotions closely connected with socio-cultural norms (e.g. friendship, pity, honour, shame, pride) and to ‘basic emotions’ (e.g. fear, hope, joy, grief, disgust, despair, love, lust, envy).
In Classics, the study of emotions is a multidisciplinary task that profits from the findings of the neurosciences, exploits the evidence in a large variety of sources, and takes into consideration diverse parameters (aesthetic, social, and cultural). Classicists and ancient historians can study filtered representations of and reflections on emotions as well as the parameters which explain why a feeling is represented in a particular manner in ancient texts and images. A variety of factors influence the manifestation of emotions: the display of emotions as a persuasion strategy (e.g. in oratory, petitions, prayers); dramatizations and aesthetics; the influence of norms, especially of norms that aimed at restraining emotional display; gender roles; the character of the audience; linguistic usage. Although Greek and Latin terms designating emotions usually correspond to modern categories, the overlap varies, and there are nuances which can be understood only if the cultural context and the language of emotion is taken into consideration.
David John Furley and D. Sedley
A moral and natural philosopher, b. *Samos, 341
William David Ross
Eubulides of *Miletus, mid-4th cent.
Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen
Euclides (1) of *Megara (c. 450–380