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Dissoi logoi  

C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Dissoi logoi (lit. ‘Double Arguments’, i.e. ‘Arguments For and Against’), a short sophistic work of unknown authorship, written in Doric dialect (see Greek language) some time after 400 ... More

Echecrates, of Phlius, 4th cent. BCE  

Christopher Rowe

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Echecrates of Phlius (4th cent. bce) is the person to whom *Phaedo describes the last day of Socrates' life in *Plato (1)'s Phaedo. Late sources describe him as one of several Phliasians attached to ... More

eclecticism  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
An approach to philosophy which consists in the selection and amalgamation of elements of different systems of thought. The term has been much misused in relation to ancient philosophy, however, ... More

economic theory, Greek  

Martha C. Nussbaum and Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
It is a commonplace that the Greek philosophers had no economic theory. Three reasons are advanced for this absence: (1) the merely embryonic existence of the relevant institutions, ... More

Ecphantus  

D. O'Meara

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Ecphantus, a 4th-cent. bce Pythagorean from Syracuse (or Croton; Iambl. VP 267), held that indivisible bodies (monads), moved by a divine power referred to as ‘mind’ and ‘soul’, constitute ... More

education, Greek  

Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Greek ideas of education (paideia), whether theoretical or practical, encompassed upbringing and cultural training in the widest sense, not merely schooling and formal education. The poets were ... More

education, Roman  

J. V. Muir

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by ... More

Eleatic school  

John Palmer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Parmenides of Elea, Zeno of Elea, and Melissus of Samos are often considered as a group within Presocratic philosophy because of the supposed similarity of their doctrines. Some ancient ... More

Elis, school of  

Christopher Rowe

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Philosophical school reportedly founded by *Phaedon, is said shortly to have become, or merged with, the school of *Eretria (Diog. Laert. 1. 18–19; 2. 85, 105, 126). (Not the same as the *Eleatic ... More

emotions  

Angelos Chaniotis

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Although generated by neurobiological processes, emotions (pathe, affectus) also consist in a process of appraisal and individual judgement, which depends on social and cultural norms and ... More

Empedocles, c. 492–432 BCE  

Brad Inwood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
A philosopher from *Acragas in Sicily. Most details of his life are uncertain. Book 8 of *Diogenes (6) Laertius provides the largest selection of legends. Much of our biographical information ... More

Epictetus, mid-1st–2nd cent. CE  

Brad Inwood

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Epictetus (mid-1st to 2nd cent. ce), Stoic philosopher from Hierapolis in Phrygia; in early life a slave of *Epaphroditus (1) in Rome. Eventually freed by his master, he studied with *Musonius Rufus. ... More

Epicurus, moral and natural philosopher, 341–270 BCE  

David John Furley and D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
A moral and natural philosopher, b. *Samos, 341 bce; d. Athens, 270 bce. His father Neocles and mother Chaerestrate, Athenians of the deme Gargettus, emigrated to the Athenian *cleruchy in ... More

Eretria, school of  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
School of Eretria (philosophy), founded by *Menedemus (1) as a continuation of the school of Elis (see elis, school of), is mentioned by Diog. Laert. 1. 17–19, 2. 105, 126; Strabo 9. 393; Cic. Acad. ... More

ethics  

Sarah Broadie

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
‘Ethicals’ or τὰ ἠθικά (‘moralia’) was the standard label from Aristotle onwards for treatises on ethics. Aristotle also uses the adjective to describe forensic and political speeches, and literary ... More

Eubulides  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Eubulides of *Miletus, mid-4th cent. bce, dialectician associated with the *Megarian school. He was an outspoken critic of *Aristotle, a teacher of *Demosthenes (2), and the reputed author ... More

Euclides (1), of Megara, founder of the Megarian school, c. 450–380 BCE  

Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Euclides (1) of *Megara (c. 450–380 bce), associate of *Socrates and founder of the *Megarian school. He was present at the death of Socrates and thereafter housed Plato and other members ... More

eudaimonism  

Sarah Broadie

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
An approach to ethics that focuses primarily on eudaimonia (variously translated ‘happiness’, ‘flourishing’, ‘well being’, and generally understood as the highest human good). For eudaimonists the ... More

Eudemus  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Eudemus of *Rhodes (later 4th cent. bce), pupil and friend of *Aristotle. No account of his life survives, though Simplicius (in Aristotelis de Physica Commentarii 924. 13) mentions a biography by a ... More

Eudorus (2), of Alexandria (1), Greek Platonic philosopher, fl. c. 25 BCE  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Eudorus (2), of *Alexandria (1) (fl. c.25 bce), Platonist philosopher. Chief works (lost): Diairesis tou kata philosophian logou, a summary of the ethical section of which is preserved by Stobaeus; ... More

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