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Carthage, topography  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Carthage was founded on part of a large peninsula which stretched eastwards from lagoons into the gulf of Tunis; the isthmus linking it to the mainland further west is c. 5 km. (3 mi.) wide at its ... More

Casinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Casinum (mod. Cassino), on the *via Latina. An *Oscan, *Volscian, Samnite (see samnium), and, from the late 4th cent. bce, Roman city (sacked by Hannibal in 208 bce), it became a flourishing ... More

catacombs, Christian  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Jocelyn M. C. Toynbee, and Leonard V. Rutgers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A term derived from κατὰ κύμβας, a locality close to the church of St Sebastian on the *via Appia, 3 miles south of Rome. The name may refer to the natural hollows across which the road passes or to ... More

Catana  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Catana (Κατάνη, Lat. Catina, mod. Catania), founded from *Naxos (2) in 729 bce, lies on the sea at the SE side of Mt. Aetna; to the south and west stretches the fertile Catania plain, coveted by the ... More

Celtiberians  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A name used by Graeco-Roman writers to describe several peoples (Arevaci, Lusones, etc. ) living around the middle Ebro valley and in the eastern Meseta of Spain. The Celtic flavour of their script, ... More

cemeteries  

Ian Morris

The organization of a formal cemetery, as a space reserved exclusively for the disposal of the *dead, was an important dimension of the social definition of the ancient city. Burial within the ... More

Cenchreae  

John Salmon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cenchreae (mod. Kechries), eastern port of *Corinth on the Saronic Gulf. Natural protection was increased by moles of uncertain date. Little Classical or earlier has been recovered, but the place was ... More

centuriation  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A system of marking out the land in squares or rectangles, by means of limites, boundaries, normally prior to distribution in a colonial foundation. (The units above and below the centuria are ... More

Cestius Epulo, Gaius, senator  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Significant only as the builder of the conspicuous pyramid tomb beside the via Ostiensis at Rome (later built into the Porta S. Paolo). The tomb, with its grandiose Egyptian aspirations, and an ... More

Cetius Faventinus, Marcus  

Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Marcus Cetius Faventinus, (3rd–4th cent. ce), made a revised abridgement of *Vitruvius for builders of private houses; his work was used by *Palladius (1) and *Isidorus (2).

churches, early Christian  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The first Christians met in the private houses of the faithful. Gradually, as local Christian communities became more established both in numbers and in wealth, they might acquire their own ... More

Cilician gates  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The pass through the *Taurus mountains which connected the central Anatolian plateau with the Cilician plain and with *Syria. In Roman times this was one of the key routes of the eastern part of the ... More

circus  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Circus, the Roman arena for chariot-racing. The most important at Rome was the Circus Maximus (c.650×125 m.: c.711×137 yds.), in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine, traditionally ... More

clavus angustus and latus clavus  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The angustus clavus was a narrow, the latus clavus a broad, purple upright stripe (possibly two stripes) stitched to or woven into the Roman tunica. The former indicated equestrian, the ... More

Cloaca Maxima  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Originally a stream draining NE Rome from the Argiletum to the Tiber through the *forum Romanum and *Velabrum. According to tradition it was canalized by *Tarquinius Priscus or *Tarquinius Superbus, ... More

Clunia  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A town in the territory of the Celtiberian Arevaci and later in Roman *Tarraconensis, lay 40 km. (25 mi.) north-west of Uxama (mod. Osma). It was a *conventus capital which had been granted municipal ... More

Clusium  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Clusium (Etr. Clevsin-, Chamars; mod. Chiusi), above the *via Cassia in the Val di Chiana, traditionally played an important role in early Roman history under *Porsenna; it did not pass ... More

Cnossus, Greek and Roman  

Lucia F. Nixon and Simon Price

A town on Crete. It flourished from the 9th to the 6th cent., to judge from the evidence of large numbers of tombs (protogeometric to orientalizing periods), but seems to have lost power in the ... More

cohors  

Henry Michael Denne Parker, George Ronald Watson, and Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In the early Roman republic the infantry provided by the allies were organized in separate cohortes of varying strength, each under a Roman or native *praefectus. In the legions the cohort was first ... More

collegium  

Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

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