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Aventicum  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aventicum, civitas-capital of the *Helvetii, modern Avenches, destroyed by the *Alamanni in the 3rd cent. ce. Vespasian established a colony of *veterans here (Colonia Pia Flavia Constans ... More

Avernus  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Avernus, a deep volcanic crater, now a lake, near *Puteoli. Its appearance inspired the belief that it led to the Underworld (Strabo 5. 244, etc.). *Hannibal made a sacrifice there, and M. *Vipsanius ... More

Bactria  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Enormous region lying (roughly) between the *Oxus (Amu-Darya) to the north and the Hindu Kush to the south; the term occasionally also includes Sogdiana to the north (Tadjikistan/Uzbekistan). The ... More

Baetica  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The heart of the province originally (197 bce) called Further Spain, comprising a range of sophisticated and urbanized peoples formerly controlled by *Carthage. As Roman territory increased, an ... More

Baiae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Baiae, dependency of *Cumae, said to have been named after Baios, a companion of *Odysseus. It never became a *municipium, but flourished as a fashionable spa and resort, thanks to volcanic hot ... More

Baleares et Pithyusae insulae  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The name Gymnesiae (Γυμνησίαι), used by early Greek voyagers, was replaced by Baliares or Baliarides. The spelling was changed to Baleares under Augustus. Roman names of each island were Maiorca ... More

Bantia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Lucanian city on the border with Apulia (25 km. (15 ½ mi.) south of Venosa). It flourished in the 4th–3rd cents. bce, and became a *municipium in 89 bce. The material culture shows strong ... More

Barcino  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Barcino (mod. Barcelona), Colonia Iulia Augusta Paterna Faventia, founded by Augustus on a coastal branch of the via Augusta, possibly around 15 bce. There was no earlier native occupation and ... More

Barium  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Barium (mod. Bari), a Peucetian city and port. Despite a strategic position it was of only minor importance in antiquity, and was economically dependent on *fishing. There are traces of Greek ... More

Bassae  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Bassae, in SW Arcadia, near Phigaleia, the site of one of the best-preserved Greek temples. This was dedicated to *Apollo the Helper (Epikourios). *Pausanias (3) says it was the work of *Ictinus, ... More

Bedriacum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bedriacum (or Betriacum), near modern Calvatone midway between *Verona and *Cremona in Cisalpine Gaul, gave its name to two decisive battles in 69 ce. *Vitellius' troops defeated *Otho's ... More

bematists  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bematists, the surveyors of *Alexander (3) the Great. Of known bematists Philonides of Crete was a celebrated distance runner, and others (notably Baeton and Diognetus) had literary aspirations. ... More

Beneventum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Beneventum (mod. Benevento in southern Italy), was originally a stronghold of the Hirpini Samnites (see samnium) named Malventum. It fell sometime after 300 bce to the Romans, who made it ... More

Bibracte  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bibracte (mod. Mont-Beuvray), a hill-fort, the original capital of the *Aedui, where in 52 bce supreme command was conferred upon *Vercingetorix. Though its inhabitants were later transferred to ... More

Bithynia  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A territory in NW Asia Minor, originally confined to the peninsula of Chalcedon, but gradually extending eastward to *Heraclea (3) and *Paphlagonia, and southward across the Propontis to Mysian ... More

Bola  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bola (or Bolae), town in Latium, which often changed hands between Romans and *Aequi in the 5th cent. bce. It disappears from history after 389 bce (Livy 6. 2. 14; Diod. Sic. 14. 117. 4). ... More

Bonna  

Peter Salway and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(Mod. Bonn). Auxiliary troops (see auxilia) were first stationed at Bonna c.20/10 bce and remained in garrison there into the 3rd cent. The legionary fortress dates from the reign of Claudius and was ... More

Bononia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bononia (mod. Bologna) in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul, cisalpine) has always been a place of consequence. First settled c.1000 bce, about 500 bce the Etruscans founded *Felsina there. Felsina became the ... More

Borysthenes  

Max Cary and David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Borysthenes, a river of *Scythia (the modern Dnieper). According to Herodotus (4. 53) it was the largest river after the Nile and the Ister (Danube) and was navigable for 40 days from the ... More

Boscoreale  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boscoreale, former hunting-reserve of the Angevin kings of Naples (*Neapolis) and part of the Naples conurbation, 2 km. (1 ¼ mi.) from Pompeii, is famous for the excavation of several ... More

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