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Chares (1), Athenian general, 4th cent. CE  

George Law Cawkwell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chares (c.400–c.325 bce), famous Athenian soldier, probably more often general than any other Athenian of the 4th cent. except *Phocion, notorious for his treatment of the allies of the *Second ... More

Charidemus  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Mercenary general. Born (illegitimately) in Oreus (*Histiaea), his early career involved (sometimes rapid) switches between mutually hostile employers—*Athens (368–365, 365–362), *Olynthus (365), ... More

Charmides, d. 403 BCE  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Charmides (d. 403 bce), an Athenian of noble family, nephew and ward of *Critias, uncle of *Plato (1), and member of the Socratic circle. He is mentioned in Plato Symp. 222b, Prt. 315a, Xen.Mem. 3. ... More

Charon (2), of Lampsacus, historian  

Klaus Meister

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tradition (Dion. Hal.Thuc. 5, Pomp. 3. 7; Plut.Mor. 859b; Tert.De anim. 46 = T 4a–d) made him an older contemporary and source of *Herodotus. The Suda (entry under the name = T 1) confirms this ... More

Chilon  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Spartan *ephor (c.556 bce), whose wit and wisdom gained him an assured place among the ‘*Seven Sages’ of Greece (Pl.Prt. 343a). Related by marriage to kings of both houses (see agiads; ... More

Chremonides  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Son of Eteocles, Athenian from the *deme of Aithaladai. An early associate of *Zeno (2), founder of *Stoicism, Chremonides was a leading democratic politician at Athens and negotiated the ... More

Cimmerians  

Andrew Robert Burn and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cimmerians (Κιμμέριοι, Assyrian Gimirri, the ‘Gomer’ of Ezek. 38: 6; Gen. 10: 2), a people driven from south Russia by the nomad Scyths (Hdt. 1. 16 f.). They overthrew Phrygia under the ... More

Cimon  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Wealthy and noble 5th-cent. bce Athenian, son of *Miltiades and Hegesipyle, daughter of the Thracian king Olorus; Cimon and the historian *Thucydides (2), son of an Olorus, were thus related (APF 234 ... More

Cineas (2), Thessalian orator and author  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Thessalian was an uncommonly able orator (he was a pupil of *Demosthenes (2)) and diplomat in the service of King *Pyrrhus of Epirus. Best known for his dealings with Rome during Pyrrhus’ Italian ... More

Clearchus (1), Spartan commander, c. 450–401 BCE  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
*Proxenos of *Byzantium, he held various commands, there and elsewhere, from 411 onwards. At Byzantium again in 403, he made himself tyrant, but was ejected by Spartan forces. He commanded ... More

Cleidemus, fl. 378–340 BCE  

Phillip Harding

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cleidemus or Cleitodemus (fl. between 378 and 340 bce), expert in ceremonial ritual (exēgētēs), was considered in antiquity the first atthidographer (Paus. 10. 15. 5); see atthis. His work ... More

Cleisthenes (1), of Sicyon, tyrant  

Percy Neville Ure, P. J. Rhodes, and Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The greatest tyrant of the family of Orthagoras, which ruled for the record period of a century (probably c.665–565 bce). His reign (c.600–570) was allegedly marked by a movement against the Argive ... More

Cleisthenes (2), Athenian politician  

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Athenian politician, of the *Alcmaeonid family, son of *Megacles and Agariste, daughter of *Cleisthenes (1) of *Sicyon. He was archon under the tyrant *Hippias (1) in 525/4 bce, but later ... More

Cleitarchus, of Alexandria (1) (?)  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Son of the historian *Dinon and historian of *Alexander (3) the Great. His work, comprising at least twelve books, achieved great popularity and was apparently the model for the Roman historian, L. ... More

Cleitus (1), 'the Black', Macedonian commander, d. 328 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Macedonian noble and brother of the wet-nurse of *Alexander (3) the Great, commanded the royal Squadron of Companions (see hetairoi) and saved Alexander's life at the *Granicus. In 330 he ... More

Cleitus (2), 'the White', Macedonian commander, d. 318 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Cleitus, (d. 318 bce) Macedonian officer, held senior infantry and cavalry commands under *Alexander (3) the Great (from 327) and returned to the west with *Craterus (1) and the veterans ... More

Cleomenes (1) I  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Cleomenes (1) I, *Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.520–490 bce), son of Anaxandridas II by a second, bigamous union. His long, activist reign was one of the half-dozen most influential on record. He ... More

Cleomenes (2) III  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
*Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.235–222 bce). The son of Leonidas, he imbibed ideals of social revolution from his wife Agiatis, widow of his father's opponent *Agis IV. Before implementing those ... More

Cleon, Athenian politician  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cleon, Athenian politician, the son of a rich tanner. He was perhaps involved in the attacks on *Pericles (1) through his intellectual friends in the 430s bce, and in the opposition to Pericles’ ... More

Cleonymus, Athenian politician  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Athenian politician of the 420s bce. He is mocked by *Aristophanes (1) as a glutton, a liar, and a coward, and he justified the last charge by running away after the battle of *Delion (424). He is ... More

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