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politics, Greek  

Oswyn Murray

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
1. Politics as power struggle. This is the dominant interpretation of politics in the modern world since Macchiavelli; it requires organized groups, either operating out of group self-interest or ... More

probouloi  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Probouloi was a name used for officials in various Greek states. In *Athensprobouloi were appointed in 413 bce. They were ten men over 40 years of age, including *Sophocles ... More

proedroi  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Proedroi were chairmen. In the 5th cent. bce in Athens the chairman at meetings of the *boulē and *ekklēsia was the foreman of the *prytaneis; but later, probably from 403/2 ... More

propaganda  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Propaganda is not easy to define. It means active manipulation of opinion and some distortion of the truth; it also perhaps aims at exclusive indoctrination of one set of opinions, contrast ideology ... More

proxenos/proxeny  

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Since Greek states did not send permanent diplomatic representatives abroad, local citizens served as proxenoi to look after the interests of other states in their community. By the beginning of the ... More

prytaneis  

D. M. MacDowell and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Prytaneis means ‘presidents’, sing. prytanis (πρύτανις). In Athens the *boulē, after it was reorganized in 508/7 bce by *Cleisthenes (2), consisted of fifty men chosen by lot from each of the ten ... More

punishment, Greek and Roman practice  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
According to *Cicero (Ad Brut. 23. 3), it was a dictum of *Solon's that a community was held together by rewards and penalties, and the ascription seems plausible, in so far as Archaic Greek ... More

sacred laws  

Robert Parker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The category of “sacred laws” is one within which modern scholarship on Greek religion assembles inscriptions which in various ways regulate the conduct of cult. Many have a broadly policing ... More

Solon, Athenian politician and poet  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Solon, Athenian politician and poet, was of noble descent but, whether or not the tradition that he was of moderate means is correct, came to sympathize with the poor. He was prominent in the war ... More

sortition  

Victor Ehrenberg and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Sortition (klērōsis), election by lot, a method of appointing officials in Greek city-states, especially in democracies (see democracy, both entries). It was based on the idea of equality and ... More

stasis  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Stasis (lit. ‘standing’), a Greek word commonly used for a group of men who take a stand in a political dispute, i.e. a party or faction, and by extension for the dispute itself, especially when the ... More

status, legal and social, Roman  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
In Roman law, status describes the ‘legal position’ of an individual with respect to both that person's household (familia) and the broader civic community of Rome. The concept of status is linked to ... More

Stratocles  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Stratocles, son of Euthydemus, Athenian from the *deme of Diomeia (c. 355 to after 292 bce). He was the official prosecutor of *Harpalus (Din. 1. 1. 20) (324/3). After *Demetrius (4)'s ... More

sycophants  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Sycophants (συκοφάνται), habitual prosecutors. In Athens there were, for most offences, no public prosecutors, but anyone (for some offences, any citizen) who wished was allowed to prosecute in a ... More

sylē  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Sylē and its cognate verb (συλᾶν) denoted the act of stripping an outsider or an enemy of his possessions by force, nominally in reprisal for previous hurt or outstanding *debt (cf. Hom.Il. 11. ... More

symbolon  

Robert J. Hopper and Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Symbolon, originally a physical object, intended as a material indication of identification or agreement. What may have begun as a private practice as a reminder of xenia or ritualized friendship ... More

symmoria  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Symmoria (‘partnership’), in Athens a group of men liable for payment of the tax called *eisphora or for the *liturgy of the *trierarchy. In 378/7 bce all payers of eisphora were organized in ... More

sympoliteia  

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
The verb sympoliteuein is used from the late 5th cent. bce onwards to denote the merging of separate communities in a single state, similar to *synoecism (Thuc. 6. 4. 1, Xen.Hell. 5. 2. 12). In ... More

synoecism  

Victor Ehrenberg and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Synoecism (synoikismos), in the Greek world, the combination of several smaller communities to form a single larger community. Sometimes the union was purely political and did not affect the pattern ... More

syssitia  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
The generic name for mess-companies of citizens in various Greek cities, especially in *Sparta and *Crete. Some scholars view them as successors of the common messes of archaic warrior clubs or ... More

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