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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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Donald Michael Bailey and Michael Vickers

Were made of *gold, *silver, *iron, *lead, *bronze, and ceramic. Only the last two kinds survive in any quantity; the epigraphic record is concerned with metal lamps alone. Lamps were not only used ... More

land division, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Traces of regular division of settlement space have been found even in Dark-Age Zagora on *Andros. Some early Greek colonies (see colonization, greek), notably *Megara Hyblaea, show a degree of ... More

landscapes, ancient Greek  

Oliver Rackham

The wonderful beauty and diversity of Greece was seldom fully appreciated by ancient Greeks (to whom it was commonplace). Greece has a rich flora and fauna, with many species peculiar to ... More


Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Is mined in part for the extraction of *silver from its ores. Some of the major sources in the Greek world were located at *Laurium in *Attica, on *Siphnos, and in *Macedonia. There were extensive ... More

Leochares, Athenian sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Leochares, Athenian sculptor, active c. 370–320 bce; worked mainly in bronze, specializing in gods and portraits. Small bronze replicas of his *Zeus Brontaeus (‘Thundering Zeus’) survive, ... More


P. J. Parsons

By the end of the 5th cent. bce, books were in general circulation, even if some regarded them as a fad of intellectuals like *Euripides (Ar. Ran. 943, cf. fr. 506 KA); Athens had booksellers (Eup. ... More


Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building ... More


Frederick Norman Pryce and David William John Gill

The ancients knew two methods: the burning of oil in a lamp (see lamps) and the combustion of a solid substance. In Minoan (see minoan civilization) and in Classical times lamps were preferred for ... More


Ellen E. Rice

Lindus was the most important of the three independent Dorian cities of *Rhodes until the *synoecism with *Ialysus and *Camirus created the federal Rhodian state in 408/7 bce. The city occupies a ... More


Gregory S. Aldrete

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Greek term for a type of body armour made of linen. Corselets made of linen and other textiles were employed by a wide variety of cultures across the Mediterranean basin, including the Greeks, ... More

Long Walls, the  

Thomas James Dunbabin, Charles William John Eliot, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Long Walls (τὰ μακρὰ τείχη or σκέλη, ‘legs’), were built between 461 and 456 bce to connect Athens with her ports, *Phaleron and *Piraeus. (Thuc. 1. 107. 1, 108. 3, remarkably his only references ... More


James Roy

Lycosura, a small town with an important sanctuary in SW *Arcadia, situated in the hills west of the main Megalopolitan basin, belonged to the Parrhasians, but on the foundation of *Megalopolis was ... More

Lysippus (2) and Lysistratus, Sicyonian sculptors  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Sicyonian sculptors, active c.370–315 bce. The two, who were brothers, worked exclusively in bronze. Lysippus was by far the more prolific and famous, producing gods, heroes, agonistic victors, ... More

Lysippus, school of  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
According to *Pliny (1), HN 34. 66, Lysippus (2) left three sons and pupils, Laippus (probably Daippus, misreading the initial Δ as Λ), Boedas, and Euthycrates. Elsewhere, he adds *Chares (4) of ... More


Donald Emrys Strong and Hazel Dodge

Under μάρμαρος, marmor, the ancients included granites, porphyries, and all stones capable of taking a high polish. In the third millennium bce the white marbles of the Greek islands were used for ... More

Marmor Parium  

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Ellen E. Rice

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marmor Parium, an inscribed marble stele, originally about 200 cm. high by 69 cm. wide (79×27 in.), set up at *Paros (hence its name; also known as the Parian Marble). Two fragments of this important ... More


Richard Seaford

Masks, as in many other pre-modern cultures, were used in Greece and Rome in cult and in dramatic representations. We have terracotta representations of grotesque masks worn in adolescent rites of ... More


Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
One of the *Seven Wonders of the world, it was the tomb of the satrap *Mausolus of Caria (reigned 377–353 bce). Begun shortly after 367, when Mausolus refounded *Halicarnassus, it was ... More


Robert Sallares

Among the Greeks the times and names of meals varied at different periods. In early times (ἄριστον) was taken shortly after sunrise, followed by a main meal (δεῖπνον) at midday and supper (δόρπον) in ... More