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Iulius Paulus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Iulius Paulus, a celebrated Roman lawyer whose origin is unknown. Taught by *Cervidius Scaevola, he was active in Rome as advocate, teacher, and writer. Under *Septimius Severus he was assessor to ... More

Iunius Congus  

Boris Rankov

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Iunius Congus, historian, jurist and antiquarian of the late second/early first century BC, admired by Lucilius (593 Krenkel) and referred to by Cicero as a man of great learning. He has usually been ... More

iuridicus  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Iuridicus was the title given to certain officials of praetorian rank (see praetor, Caesar and imperial period) who performed judicial functions in civil cases in Italy (outside Rome and its ... More

ius civile  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
This term derives its meaning from its context. By contrast with *ius gentium in the ‘theoretical’ sense it is the law of a particular state and usually, unless otherwise qualified, the law of Rome. ... More

ius gentium  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ius gentium, or law of nations, has three main senses. (1) In a ‘practical’ sense it denotes that part of Roman private law which was open to citizens and non-citizens alike. The institutions of the ... More

ius honorarium  

Callie Williamson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Ius honorarium (magistrate law), derived from honos (curule office), was a classification formulated by jurists of the Roman imperial period to distinguish the private law made by juridical ... More

ius Italicum  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ius Italicum was a privilege granted to certain communities in the Roman provinces whereby their land was treated in law as if it were in Italy. It was thus exempted from the rule that land in the ... More

ius Latii  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ius Latii, the Latin right, refers primarily to the legal status of those Latins (see latini) who after 338 bce shared the right of marriage (conubium) and commerce (*commercium) with Romans. Latins ... More

ius liberorum  

Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
*Augustus' marriage laws (the Julian law of 18 bce and Papio-Poppaean of 9 ce) rewarded parents. For example, precedence in public office was offered to married men and fathers. Three children (in ... More

ius primae relationis  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ius primae relationis, the right of prior proposal. When in 23 bce*Augustus ceased to hold the consulship, certain rights and powers were voted him by the senate by way of ... More

iustitium  

Adolf Berger and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Iustitium (derived from ius sistere, ‘stopping legal business’), was the temporary suspension of jurisdiction and judicial operations by magistrates and judges in civil and criminal matters. It was ... More

Iuventius Celsus Titus Aufidius Hoenius Severianus, Publius  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Publius Iuventius Celsus Titus Aufidius Hoenius Severianus, of a family with *Umbrian connections, was the son of a lawyer and himself a bold and creative legal writer. He was praetor in 106ce or ... More

The Jewish Patriarchate  

Lee I. Levine

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The Jewish Patriarch (Hebr. Nasi) was the leading Jewish communal official in the late Roman and early Byzantine Empires, in both Palestine and the Diaspora. The Patriarchate, which ... More

Justinian's codification  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Justinian's codification is a term loosely used to describe the three volumes (Codex, Digesta or Pandectae, Institutiones) in which Justinian (ce 527–65) tried to restate the whole of Roman law in a ... More

Latini Iuniani  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Latini Iuniani were former slaves (see slavery) who had been manumitted (i.e. freed) without the formalities required by law or in breach of the restrictions imposed by Augustus on the freedom of ... More

law and procedure, Athenian  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Greeks used the same word (νόμος) for both custom and law, and the beginning of law is hard to define. One reasonable view is that an unwritten rule should be regarded as a law if the community or ... More

law and procedure, Roman  

Tony Honoré, Ernest Metzger, Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The subject is here dealt with in three sections: civil law; civil procedure; and criminal law and procedure.Civil law (*ius civile) in its broadest sense was the law of the city of Rome as opposed ... More

law of nature  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Law of nature embodies the belief that there are certain principles or institutions which are so rooted in ‘nature’ that they are of universal validity. *Aristotle divided law into that which was ... More

law, Roman, institutional scheme of  

Jakob Fortunat Stagl

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The institutional scheme of Roman law was developed primarily by Gaius on the basis of a preceding tradition of law manuals. The scheme consists of dividing the law into a General Part, ... More

law, Roman, sociology of  

Bruce W. Frier

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
During the later republic and early empire, the Roman jurists developed law, particularly private law, on the basis of what they called the ‘art’ (ars) of law-finding: they subjected existing legal ... More

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