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Furrina  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Furrina, Roman goddess whose relatively early importance is reflected in the festival of the Furrinalia (25 July) and the existence of a flamen Furrinalis (see flamines). Her cult at Rome ... More

genius  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Genius, lit. ‘that which is just born’. The genius, for a long time understood as the deification of the power of generation (Wissowa, RK 175; Latte, RR 103; H. Le Bonniec, Rev. Ét. Lat.1976, 110 ... More

ghosts  

Esther Eidinow

Identifying a ghost in Greek literature and distinguishing it from what we might call a delusion or a supernatural entity can sometimes pose difficulties: *Homer tends to use the term ... More

haruspices  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Etruscan diviners. The term is composed of haru- (hari-, aru-), etymology uncertain, and the suffix -spex, ‘one who inspects’; in the bilingual inscription CIL 11. 6363 from Pisaurum (Pesaro) ... More

Hercules  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hercules, from Hercles, Italic pronunciation of the name *Heracles. His is perhaps the earliest foreign cult to be received in Rome (perhaps from *Tibur), the Ara Maxima (Coarelli, Il Foro boario 60 ... More

Hermes Trismegistus  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Hellenistic *Hermes, Egyptianized through contact with the Egyptian Thoth. ‘Trismegistos’ derives from the Egyptian superlative obtained through repetition (Hermes appears as ‘Great, Great, ... More

Hermias (3), Greek Christian author, c. 200 CE  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hermias (3), otherwise unknown Christian author of the Satire on the Profane Philosophers. This small Greek treatise of uncertain date (perhaps c.200 ce) aims at exposing the ... More

Hilaria  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman festival on 25 March, one of a series of five festivals to the Magna Mater or *Cybele (15–26 March), when she rejoiced in *Attis' resurrection (Macrob.Sat. 1. 21. 7–10). It apparently belongs ... More

Honos and Virtus  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Deities at Rome personifying military courage and its reward; their cult was selected for two major commemorative temples by successful generals: M. *Claudius Marcellus(1) after his conquest of ... More

Horatius Cocles  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In one of the most famous of all Roman legends, Horatius and two companions held the Sublician bridge against the invading army of Lars *Porsenna until it could be demolished, whereupon he swam back ... More

Horus  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Horus (Egyptian Ḥrw, ‘he is far off’), one of the most important Egyptian gods, soon equated, like other falcon-headed deities, with the sun-god Re. His main centre was Edfu in upper *Egypt, where ... More

Icilius, Lucius  

Piero Treves

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lucius Icilius, a plebeian hero, though probably of patrician descent, betrothed to *Verginia and leader of the second secession (see secessio), has little claim to historical existence, but the lex ... More

indigetes  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Indigetes or -ites, indigitamenta, ‘invoked deities’. Both words, as well as the corresponding verb indigitare, are fairly common and there is no doubt that they mean respectively a class of Roman ... More

instauratio  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
When a religious ceremony was interrupted or wrongly performed (vitium) it had to be repeated from the beginning. We hear particularly of instauratio of games (ludi) and the Latin Festival ... More

interpretatio Romana  

James Rives

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Interpretatio Romana, lit. ‘Latin translation’ (Tac. Germ. 43. 3); a phrase used to describe the Roman habit of replacing the name of a foreign deity with that of a Roman deity considered somehow ... More

Iphis  

Herbert Jennings Rose

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Iphis, in mythology, (1) father of *Eteoclus, one of the *Seven against Thebes, and of *Evadne(2), wife of *Capaneus. (2) A young Cypriot, who loved Anaxarete, a noblewoman of that island. She would ... More

Isis  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Isis (Egyptian s or st, Gk. ῏Ισις, Εἶσις), ‘mistress of the house of life’, whose creative and nurturing functions made her the most popular divinity of the Late period in the Egyptian *Fayûm and ... More

Islands of the Blest  

Eric Herbert Warmington, Emily Kearns, and Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Islands of the Blest (Fortunatae insulae) were originally, like the ‘Gardens of the *Hesperides’, the mythical winterless home of the happy dead, far west on Ocean shores or islands (Hom. ... More

Iustitia  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman equivalent of *Dike (1); mostly in poetry, but had a temple from 8 January 13 ce (Ov. Pont. 3. 6. 25; fasti Praenestini under 8 January; see further Wissowa, RK 333; Latte, RR 300 ff.) and was ... More

Iuventas  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Goddess, not of youth or youthful beauty in general, but of the iuvenes, the novi togati, or men of military age (contrast Hebe). She controlled the admission of males into the community ... More

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