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Hieronymus (2), of Rhodes, philosopher and historian of literature, c. 290–230 BCE  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Hieronymus (2) (RE 12), of *Rhodes, philosopher and historian of literature, lived at Athensc. 290–230 BCE, under the protection of *Antigonus (2) Gonatas. He left the *Peripatetic school ... More

Hippasus, of Metapontum  

Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Hippasus of *Metapontum, an early Pythagorean later regarded as having founded the branch of the school called μαθηματικοί or ‘mathematicians’ (see pythagoras(1)), and as having been punished for ... More

Hippias (2), of Elis, sophist  

C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Hippias (2) of *Elis, *sophist, a younger contemporary of *Protagoras. He acquired great fame and wealth as a teacher and orator, claiming competence in mathematics, astronomy, grammar, ... More

Hippobotus, philosophical historian, late 3rd–early 2nd cent. BCE  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy

His On Sects and Catalogue of Philosophers were sources for *Diogenes (6) Laertius.

Hippon  

William David Ross and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Hippon, also called Hipponax, natural philosopher of the Periclean age (5th cent. bce), probably came from *Samos. He treated water or the moist as the principle of all things, reasoning chiefly from ... More

hubris  

N. R. E. Fisher

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Hubris, intentionally dishonouring behaviour, was a powerful term of moral condemnation in ancient Greece; and in Athens, and perhaps elsewhere, it was also treated as a serious crime. The common use ... More

Hypatia  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Woman learned in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy (d. 415 ce). Daughter of the mathematician *Theon(4) of *Alexandria (1), she revised the third book of his Commentary on the ... More

Iamblichus (2), Neoplatonist philosopher, c. 245–c. 325 CE  

D. O'Meara

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Iamblichus (2) (c. 245–c. 325 ce), *Neoplatonist philosopher, born at Chalcis in Coele Syria (mod. Qinnesrin), probably studied with *Porphyry in Rome or Sicily; later he founded his own school in ... More

Idomeneus (2), biographer and politician, c. 325–c. 270 BCE  

Frank William Walbank and Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Biographer and politician of *Lampsacus. Friend of *Epicurus, but perhaps more *Peripatetic than Epicurean. Wrote On the Followers of*Socrates: there are surviving fragments on the Socratic ... More

immortality  

Catherine Osborne

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
By contrast with the immortal gods, humans and animals are identified in ancient thought as mortals. Yet the idea that shades survive in *Hades or the underworld, was standard. More elaborate ... More

intolerance, intellectual and religious  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
For most Greek states our evidence is too poor and patchy for us to be able to say much. We know a little about 5th-cent. bce Athens. Sir K. Popper famously praised it as an ‘open society’ but the ... More

Iulius Canus  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Iulius (RE 167) Canus or Kanus, a Stoic martyr (see stoicism), executed by *Gaius (1) after a long dispute with him. The younger Seneca (L. *Annaeus Seneca(2)) (Tranq. 14. 4–10) celebrates his calm ... More

Iunius Arulenus Rusticus, Quintus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Quintus Iunius Arulenus Rusticus, suffect consul 92 ce, a Stoic philosopher (see stoicism), friend of *Thrasea Paetus, whose defence of senatorial rights he supported. As tribune in 66 Rusticus was ... More

Iunius Rusticus, Quintus  

Anthony R. Birley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Iunius Rusticus, Quintus, Stoic senator (see stoicism), son of *Domitian's victim of the same names, was consul suffect in ce 133. A mentor of Marcus *Aurelius, he was appointed city prefect when the ... More

kingship  

Oswyn Murray

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Kingship (basileia). The Mycenaean political system (see mycenaean civilization) was monarchic, with the king (wanax) at the head of a palace-centred economy; the 10th-cent. bce ‘hero's tomb’ at ... More

kinship  

S. C. Humphreys

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In antiquity constituted a network of social relationships constructed through marriage and legitimate filiation (including *adoption). It stretched beyond the *household (which usually included ... More

knowledge, theories of  

Richard Bett

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Philosophy
Questions about the nature and possibility of knowledge extend throughout Greek philosophy. In the early period, several thinkers raised doubts about our ability to know the truth of the ... More

Lacydes, of Cyrene  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Lacydes of Cyrene succeeded *Arcesilaus (1) as head of the Middle *Academy in 241/0 bce, and held the position till at least as late as 224/3, after which the headship was in abeyance till *Carneades ... More

law, Roman, institutional scheme of  

Jakob Fortunat Stagl

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The institutional scheme of Roman law was developed primarily by Gaius on the basis of a preceding tradition of law manuals. The scheme consists of dividing the law into a General Part, ... More

Leon (1), of Byzantium, Academic philosopher  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Sharp-tongued *Academy pupil who inspired Byzantine resistance to *Philip (1) II (340/39 bce) and crucially persuaded the city to accept help from *Phocion (another Academy product). He was later ... More

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