Hieronymus (2) (RE 12), of *Rhodes, philosopher and historian of literature, lived at Athensc. 290–230 BCE, under the protection of *Antigonus (2) Gonatas. He left the *Peripatetic school when it was declining under *Lyco's headship, and founded an eclectic school, defining the goal of life as freedom from pain and trouble.
On Suspension of Judgement; On Drink; Symposium; a work on ethics; On Not Being Angry; On Poets; Historical Memoranda; Miscellaneous Memoranda; On Isocrates; Letters. The fragments illustrate his love of literary gossip.
Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen
C. C. W. Taylor
Hippias (2) of *Elis, *sophist, a younger contemporary of *Protagoras. He acquired great fame and wealth as a teacher and orator, claiming competence in mathematics, astronomy, grammar, poetry, music, and history, as well as in various handicrafts and in mnemonic techniques. He is perhaps (but see following entry) to be identified with the *Hippias(3) reported by Proclus as having discovered the quadratrix, a curve used in attempts to square the circle. His voluminous works included an elegy on the drowning of a chorus of boys from *Messenia, a collection of historical material, a list of Olympian victors (see
His On Sects and Catalogue of Philosophers were sources for *Diogenes (6) Laertius.
William David Ross and Simon Hornblower
N. R. E. Fisher
G. J. Toomer
Woman learned in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy (d. 415
Frank William Walbank and Kenneth S. Sacks
M. T. Griffin
Anthony R. Birley
S. C. Humphreys
Questions about the nature and possibility of knowledge extend throughout Greek philosophy. In the early period, several thinkers raised doubts about our ability to know the truth of the proto-scientific theories they themselves were developing. Plato depicted Socrates as disclaiming knowledge about anything important but searching for fundamental ethical truths. He (Plato) also introduced the idea of unchanging Forms, a grasp of which is crucial for knowledge; in one dialogue, he examined a number of proposed definitions of knowledge itself. Aristotle developed an ideal of scientific knowledge centered on demonstrations of why the objects under examination must have certain features, the starting points of which are an understanding of the essences of the things in question. The Stoics and the Epicureans both offered robustly positive accounts of how knowledge is possible, and they were challenged on this by sceptics of both the Academic and Pyrrhonian traditions.
William David Ross
Jakob Fortunat Stagl
The institutional scheme of Roman law was developed primarily by Gaius on the basis of a preceding tradition of law manuals. The scheme consists of dividing the law into a General Part, Family Law, Property Law, Law of Succession, Law of Obligations, and Civil Procedure. This scheme is apparent not only in Gaius’s Institutes but also in the whole of his didactic scheme, which can be discerned from descriptions of the curriculum in his time. Gaius’s larger didactic scheme is indebted to contemporary philosophical, rhetorical, and didactic currents, which made it possible for him to organise the law of Rome in such a solid and plausible way that the emperor Justinian adopted this scheme for his compilation, comprising the Institutes, the Digest, and the Codex.