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crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

Cuicul  

William Nassau Weech and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cuicul (mod. Djemila), a mountain town lying between *Cirta and Sitifis on the main road linking *Numidia and *Mauretania. The name suggests a Numidian origin, but nothing is known about the place ... More

Cumae  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cumae (Gk. Cyme; mod. Cuma), *Euboean colony, founded c.740 bce, 16 km. (10 mi) north-west of Naples (Neapolis). This was the earliest colony on the Italian mainland, and dominated coastal *Campania ... More

Curia (2), the senate-house at Rome  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Curia (2), the senate-house of Rome. The original building on the north side of the *Comitium in the forum Romanum, ascribed to Tullus *Hostilius, was orientated by cardinal points. It was ... More

damnatio memoriae  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
After the deaths of persons deemed by the senate enemies of the state, measures to erase their memory might follow. Originally there was no set package, as the phrase implies (cf. Ulp.Dig. ... More

dead, disposal of  

Ian Morris

Correct disposal of the dead was always a crucial element in easing the *soul of the deceased into the next world. However, the forms of burial varied enormously. Great significance was attached to ... More

Deva  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Deva, the river Dee, whence the name was applied to the legionary fortress at its mouth, modern Chester. Some Pre-Flavian military activity can be inferred, but the legionary fortress with earth bank ... More

dicing  

Ludwig Alfred Moritz

Dicing with six-sided dice (κύβοι, tesserae) or four-sided knucklebones (ἀστράγαλοι, tali; natural or manufactured from e.g. ivory) was a popular amusement in both Greece and Rome, either ... More

dining-rooms  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Reclining on couches while dining was introduced in Greece from the near east, probably around 700 bce. Special rooms were built to accommodate the couches along the lengths of the wall, often on a ... More

diploma  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A modern term describing a pair of small folding bronze tablets copied from the record of soldiers' privileges inscribed in Rome, and first issued by *Claudius to individual auxiliaries and sailors. ... More

Docimium  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Docimium was a city in *Phrygia, about 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) north-east of modern Afyon. It was named after a Macedonian founder, Docimus, and was one of the rare Hellenistic settlements of ... More

dogs  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Dogs were used by the Greeks and Romans as watchdogs; to guard livestock (but not to herd sheep or cattle); for hunting; and as *pets. *Odysseus, who, attacked by the dogs of *Eumaeus, sits immobile ... More

Domus Aurea, 'Golden House'  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Nero's residence created after the fire of ce 64, and notorious for its novelties and extravagance (Suet. Ner. 31; Tac. Ann. 15. 42). Nero was particularly castigated for turning a vast area (c.50.5 ... More

Emerita Augusta  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Emerita Augusta (mod. Mérida), a colony on the Anas (Guadiana) founded by Augustus in 25 bce for *veterans of *legions V and X. It was approached from the south by a 64-arch bridge. Many monuments ... More

epigraphy, Etruscan  

Jean Turfa

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The study of the inscriptions written in the Etruscan language and alphabet, usually texts incised on stone, pottery, or metal objects, or occasionally on more fragile media such as ink-on-cloth. ... More

epigraphy, Latin  

Joyce Reynolds

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The study of Latin texts inscribed on durable objects, usually of stone or bronze. It is concerned both with the form of the inscriptions and with their content, and so impinges on many ... More

Eporedia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Eporedia (mod. Ivrea), founded c.100 bce as a Roman colony at the foot of the Alps, to guard over the *Salassi. A theatre, amphitheatre, and aqueduct are known. Under the late empire it ... More

Esquiline  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The name, in the form Esquiliae, denoted the eastern plateau formed in Rome by montes Oppius and Cispius (Varro, Ling. 5. 49–50 (see regio)). The densely inhabited area within the *wall of ... More

Etruscans  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Etruscans (Tyrsenoi, Tyrrheni, Etrusci), historically and artistically the most important of the indigenous peoples of pre-Roman Italy, and according to M. *Porcius Cato (1) the masters of nearly all ... More

family, Roman  

Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
English ‘family’ has connotations which have changed during its long history and vary according to context. Biologically, an individual human being is related to parents, through them to ... More

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