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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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orientation  

Nicholas Purcell

The patterning of the human environment according to generally accepted calibrations of ambient space took a number of forms in ancient Mediterranean cultures, and particularly in religious contexts, ... More

ostraca  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ostraca are potsherds used for writing. Almost all found in Greece are incised; in Athens they were used particularly in voting in *ostracism. In Egypt the great majority are written with pen and ... More

Oxyrhynchus  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Oxyrhynchus (Behnesa), a nome capital (see nomos(1)) beyond the Bahr Yusuf west of the Nile, was the richest source of papyri ever found in Egypt. Grenfell and Hunt excavated for papyri ... More

Paeonius  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Paeonius, Greek sculptor from *Mende in *Thrace, active c.420bce. Known from an original work found at *Olympia in 1875—a marble statue of a flying *Nike (Victory), mounted on a high triangular base, ... More

painting, Greek  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
When the Mycenaean palaces fell, c.1200 bce (see mycenaean civilization), the art of painting was lost. It is next practised in the early Archaic period. Sources for Archaic to Hellenistic are: ... More

painting techniques  

Roger Ling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
For the technique of panel-pictures, most of which were executed on wood, we have little direct evidence, but *Pliny (1) divides his account of Greek painters (HN35) into those who worked with the ... More

palaestra  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Palaestra (παλαίστρα) was a wrestling ground, a place for athletic exercise, whether public or private, which eventually took the conventional form of an enclosed courtyard ... More

Pamphilus (1), painter, 4th cent. BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pamphilus (1) (4th cent. bce), painter, of *Amphipolis. Pupil of Eupompus of Sicyon (contemporary of *Parrhasius); teacher of *Apelles, *Pausias, *Melanthius (2). He painted a ‘Battle at Phlius’ ... More

Panaenus, fl. 448 BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Panaenus (fl. 448 bce, acc. to *Pliny (1)), Athenian painter, brother (or nephew) of *Phidias. He helped Phidias with the colouring of the Olympian Zeus (see olympia) and painted mythical scenes on ... More

pankration  

Frederick Adam Wright and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the pankration (παγκράτιον), *boxing and *wrestling were combined with kicking, strangling, and twisting. It was a dangerous sport, but strict rules were enforced by the umpires. Biting and ... More

Panskoye I  

Vladimir F. Stolba

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th ... More

papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of ... More

Parrhasius  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Parrhasius, famous painter, son, and pupil of Euenor of Ephesus, later Athenian. *Pliny (1) dates Euenor420 bce and Parrhasius397 (with *Zeuxis (1), his great rival), while Quintilian says ... More

Parthenon  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Parthenon was the temple of *Athena built on the highest part of the Acropolis at Athens south of the Archaic temple. The name is properly that of the west room, but is generally extended to the ... More

Pasiteles  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Pasiteles, a Greek sculptor from S. Italy given Roman citizenship and a contemporary of *Pompey the Great (106–48 bce). A scholar-artist in the tradition of *Antigonus (4) of Carystus, he wrote five ... More

pastoralism, Greek  

Stephen Hodkinson

Although animals were ubiquitous throughout the Greek countryside, animal husbandry has until recently received little systematic attention; hence current interpretations are frequently embryonic. ... More

Pausias, painter, 2nd quarter of 4th cent. BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pausias (second quarter 4th cent. bce ), painter, son and at first pupil of Bryetes, then of *Pamphilus, a Sicyonian. According to *Pliny (1) he was the first to paint ceiling-coffers, a claim not ... More

pentathlon  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A contest held at the *Olympian Games and elsewhere consisting of five events (long-jump, running, *discus, *javelin, *wrestling; cf. SimonidesEpig. 41P ἅλμα, ποδωκείην, δίσκον, ἄκοντα, πάλην), ... More

Perachora  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Perachora, ancient Peiraion, the promontory opposite *Corinth, in Corinthian territory. At the western extremity, sited on a narrow shelf of land by a small harbour is the sanctuary of ... More

phallus  

Richard Seaford

Phallus, an image of the penis, often as erect, to be found in various contexts, in particular (a) in certain rituals associated with fertility, notably Dionysiac *processions (see dionysus): see ... More

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