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farm buildings, Roman  

David J. Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Archaeological field-survey has focused attention on the existence of very large numbers of structures in the Roman countryside (seemingly far more densely populated and economically productive than ... More

fasces  

Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comprised bundles of rods, approximately 1.5 m. (5 ft.) long and of elm- or birchwood, and a single-headed axe; they were held together by red thongs and carried by *lictores. An iron set from a late ... More

Ferentinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ferentinum (mod. Ferentino), town of the *Hernici, whose loyalty to Rome in 306 bce secured a measure of independence for it until 90 bce Its well-preserved walls, with polygonal lower ... More

fibula  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The primitive brooch or fibula, of violin-bow form resembling the modern safety-pin, is found in late bronze age contexts in Greece, northern Italy, and central Europe. The fibula was probably an ... More

Florentia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Florentia (mod. Firenze, Florence) may have been in existence by the mid-first cent. bce (Florus 2. 8: text doubtful), but this, and the date of the colonia there, is disputed. It was laid out as a ... More

Forma urbis  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forma urbis, a plan showing the city of Rome after 203ce at a scale of roughly 1:240, engraved on 151 slabs of marble decorating a wall of the temple of Peace, perhaps in the ... More

fortifications, Roman  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Early Roman fortifications derived from Etruscan and Greek antecedents, which were both a defence and a civic monument. For the early wall of Rome attributed to Servius Tullius (6th cent. bce), see ... More

forum  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum, an open square or market-place in a Roman town, hence the name of several Roman market towns such as Forum Appii, Iulii, etc. In contrast to the *forum Boarium (cattle market) and Holitorium ... More

forum Augustum or Augusti  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Augustum or Augusti, dedicated in 2 bce, the vast precinct (110×83 m.: 120×90 yds.) of *Mars Ultor in Rome, vowed by Octavian at *Philippi. The octastyle marble Corinthian temple stood on a ... More

forum Boarium  

John Patterson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Boarium, the area of ancient Rome bounded by the *Capitol, *Palatine, and *Aventine hills, adjacent to the *Tiber island, named (according to Varro, Ling 5. 146) after the city's cattle market ... More

forum Caesaris or Iulium  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Caesaris or Iulium, dedicated by *Caesar in 46 bce, on land bought eight years earlier for 60 million sesterces (Cic.Att. 4. 16. 8), and completed by Octavian ... More

Forum Iulii  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Iulii (mod. Fréjus), presumably founded by *Caesar as a market town (forum). It owed its joint role of colony (for *veterans of Legio VIII Hispana; see legion) and of naval base (for warships ... More

forum Nervae or Transitorium  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Nervae or Transitorium in Rome, built by *Domitian, was dedicated by *Nerva in 97ce. It converted the Argiletum, which approached the *forum Romanum between the *forum ... More

forum Romanum  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Forum Romanum, the chief public square of Rome, surrounded by monumental buildings, occupied a low-lying area between the *Palatine, *Velia, *Quirinal, and *Capitol. An early iron age cemetery here ... More

forum Traiani  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Forum Traiani or Ulpium, the greatest of the imperial fora in Rome, paid for by Dacian spoils, was built for *Trajan by the architect *Apollodorus (7) and dedicated in 112 ce. The colonnaded court, ... More

Fregellae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fregellae, in the Liris valley near modern Ceprano, was a Latin colony (see ius latii) established in 328 bce; this provoked the Second Samnite War (see samnium). Staunchly loyal to Rome ... More

fulling  

Miko Flohr

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The practice of fulling woollen garments was never part of an integrated textile production chain in the Greco-Roman world, though in several contexts, there were developments towards ... More

furniture  

Nicholas Purcell

The table, chair, and couch are the central canon of ancient furnishings. Their principal characteristic (by contrast with early modern and modern furnishings) is portability, essential in the ... More

Gabii  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gabii, an ancient Latin city (see latini) 19 km. (12 mi.) to the east of Rome, and situated in a geographically critical position on both east–west and north routes. Occupied from the middle bronze ... More

gardens  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Two strands of landscape management coalesce in ancient Mediterranean garden culture: the intensification of agricultural production in fertile places where a high input of *labour can achieve very ... More

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