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  • Greek Material Culture: Bronze Age x
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polychromy, sculptural, Greek and Roman  

Jan Stubbe Østergaard

The term “polychromy” has been in use since the early 19th century to denote the presence of any element of colour in Greek and Roman sculpture. The evidence for such polychromy is ... More

arms and armour, Greek  

Herbert William Parke and Michael Vickers

Most Homeric references to arms and armour are best interpreted in connection with Minoan and Mycenaean armaments, known from such representations as those on the shaft-grave daggers (see mycenae). ... More

Asia Minor, pre-classical  

D. F. Easton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Palaeolithic and mesolithic occupation was in caves and rock-shelters and has left simple paintings. The neolithic (c.8000–6500 bce) brought settlement in plains and valleys, growth of villages, and ... More

fortifications, Greek  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Eric William Marsden, and Richard Allan Tomlinson

In the Aegean area small towns with perimeter walls appear early in the bronze age (Khalandriani). More usual is the fortified acropolis, increasingly developed in the troubled times of the late ... More

Greece, prehistory and history  

Paul Halstead, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

The stone age is divided into the palaeolithic (to c.9000 bce), mesolithic (c.9000–7000 bce) and neolithic (7th–4th millennia bce); *metallurgy began during the neolithic, before the conventional ... More

land division, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Traces of regular division of settlement space have been found even in Dark-Age Zagora on *Andros. Some early Greek colonies (see colonization, greek), notably *Megara Hyblaea, show a degree of ... More


R. W. V. Catling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lefkandi, a coastal site (ancient name unknown) in *Euboea between *Chalcis and *Eretria. Inhabited from the early bronze age until its desertion c.700 bce, perhaps following the Lelantine War (see ... More

Lerna: the 'House of the Tiles'  

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lerna: the ‘House of the Tiles’, Greek site south of *Argos (1), a fine example of the early Helladic II ‘corridor house’ type, now widely identified (J. W. Shaw, AJArch. 1987, 59 ff.). It ... More


Hector Catling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The *Laconian shrine of *Menelaus(1) and *Helen at ancient Therapne (Hdt. 6. 61; Isoc. 10. 63; Polyb. 5. 18. 21; Paus. 3. 19. 9); from c.700 bce occupied a commanding position on a spur high above ... More


O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Arthur Maurice Woodward, Robert J. Hopper, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The SW region of the Peloponnese (see Peloponnesus), bounded on the north by *Elis—along the lower course of the river Neda—and *Arcadia, and on the east by *Laconia, where the frontier follows at ... More