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polychromy, sculptural, Greek and Roman  

Jan Stubbe Østergaard

The term “polychromy” has been in use since the early 19th century to denote the presence of any element of colour in Greek and Roman sculpture. The evidence for such polychromy is ... More

building techniques and materials, Roman  

Roger B. Ulrich

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The inherent strengths, weaknesses, and availability of diverse Roman building materials governed the techniques used in construction and greatly influenced the final appearance of Roman ... More


Miko Flohr

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The practice of fulling woollen garments was never part of an integrated textile production chain in the Greco-Roman world, though in several contexts, there were developments towards ... More

bars (taberna, popina, caupona, thermopolium)  

Jeremy Hartnett

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Street-side enterprises providing food and drink offered a hallmark of Roman urbanism, and were described by any number of terms. Repeated endeavors to tease out distinctions among the names and to ... More

carpentry, Roman  

Jean-Pierre Adam

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The skilled work of the Roman carpenter (lignarius or tignarius faber) was essential to the construction of domestic and public buildings, creation of machines and structures for military ... More

ships of Lake Nemi, the  

Deborah N. Carlson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The Lake Nemi ships were two enormous, palatial houseboats built by the Roman emperor Caligula (r. 37–41ce). Lake Nemi is a small volcanic crater lake just 1.8 km (1.1 miles) wide and 35 m ... More

epigraphy, Etruscan  

Jean Turfa

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The study of the inscriptions written in the Etruscan language and alphabet, usually texts incised on stone, pottery, or metal objects, or occasionally on more fragile media such as ink-on-cloth. ... More

sexual representation, visual  

John R. Clarke

This article treats visual representations of sex between human beings, hypersexual humans and demigods, and phalli in terms of their meanings for ancient Greeks and Romans and their ... More

glass, Roman  

H.E.M. Cool

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium bce onwards, but only for jewellery and luxury items like small perfume ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More