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alcoholism, Greek  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Greeks were unfamiliar with modern concepts of alcoholism, but they were well aware of self-destructive drinking and the effects of habitual drunkenness. In the Odyssey, *Homer makes a ... More

archers, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Archaeological evidence shows that both the ‘self’ (i.e. made of one piece) and the ‘composite’ bow were known to bronze age Greece, and the considerable quantities of arrow-heads—flint, obsidian, ... More


John F. Lazenby

Temple of *Apollo on the NE coast of *Boeotia (now Dhilesi), where the Boeotians defeated the Athenians in 424 bce. The Athenians, with 7,000 *hoplites and some cavalry, but no proper ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More


Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

Olympian Games  

Nicholas J. Richardson

These were held in the precinct of *Zeus (the Altis) at *Olympia, once every four years in August or September. They were in honour of Zeus, and were said to commemorate the victory of *Pelops in his ... More

Panskoye I  

Vladimir F. Stolba

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th ... More

papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of ... More


Robert Garland

Piraeus (Πειραιεύς), the great harbour complex of Athens, is a rocky limestone peninsula some 7 km. (4–5 mi.) south-west of Athens which *Themistocles began to fortify in 493/2 (Thuc. 1. 93. 3–7) as ... More