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W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Actium (Ἄκτιον), a flat sandy promontory at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf, forming part of the territory of Anactorium, as well as the NW extremity of *Acarnania. A cult of Apollo was located ... More


T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aesernia (mod. Isernia), a strong site near the upper Volturnus river, controlling NW *Samnium. Originally a Samnite town, a Latin colony (see ius latii) established here after the Samnite Wars (263 ... More

Africa, Roman  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. ... More


Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. ... More

Asia, Roman province  

William Moir Calder, Eric William Gray, and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Attalus III of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. After his death in 133 bce it was constituted as provincia Asia by M. *Aquillius (1). Originally it consisted of Mysia, the ... More

Britain, Roman  

Martin Millett

The province of Britannia. The oldest name of the island known to us is *Albion; the earliest form of the present name, Πρεττανία, was used by the Greeks. The Latin Britannia was in use by the 1st ... More


Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with ... More


John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Germans (Germani), after the *Celts the second major linguistic and cultural grouping encountered by the Graeco-Roman world in northern Europe. It was the Romans' failure, between 12 bce and 9ce, to ... More


Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The merchant discoverer, in the Augustan or Tiberian age, of new ways of navigating the Arabian Sea: specifically the possibility of using the (very violent: his ships must have been ... More


Bruno Helly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pharsalus, city in *Thessaly, on the southern border of the central valley of the river *Enipeus, near a crossroads linking the *Adriatic to the *Aegean and central Greece and Thessaly to *Macedonia. ... More