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Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

Divitiacus (1), Aeduan Druid, 1st cent. BCE  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Divitiacus (1) (1st cent. bce), an Aeduan Druid, whose career typifies the political division that exposed Gaul to conquest. His policy of inviting Roman aid against aggressors (unsuccessfully in 61 ... More

Honos and Virtus  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Deities at Rome personifying military courage and its reward; their cult was selected for two major commemorative temples by successful generals: M. *Claudius Marcellus(1) after his conquest of ... More

Julian 'the Apostate', Roman emperor  

Rowland Smith

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Julian ‘the Apostate’ (Iulianus, Flavius Claudius), emperor 361–3 ce, was born at *Constantinople in 331, the son of a half-brother of *Constantine I, Julius Constantius. After his father's murder in ... More


Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and Andrew Lintott

Pomerium—explained in antiquity as meaning what comes after, or before, the wall—was the line demarcating an augurally constituted city. It was a religious boundary, the point beyond which the ... More

Pompilius, Numa, king of Rome  

Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Numa Pompilius, legendary second king of Rome (traditionally 715–673 bce), from whom the Aemilii, Calpurnii, Marcii, Pinarii, and Pomponii later claimed descent. Reputedly a Sabine (see sabini) from ... More


Susan Bilynskyj Dunning

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In Roman conceptions of time, the saeculum became the longest fixed interval, calculated as a period of 100 or 110 years (as opposed to, e.g., a lustrum of only five years; cf. “census”). ... More


Janet DeLaine

(1) The record-office at Rome (see archives (Roman)), possibly serving the adjacent *aerarium (treasury) of Saturn and built according to CIL 12. 737 by Q. *Lutatius Catulus(1) in 78 bce, but not ... More