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annona (other products)  

Carlos Machado

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The annona was the imperial service responsible for overseeing the supply of key food items to the city of Rome and the army. Primarily concerned with grain, the service became ... More


Jean Andreau

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
An auction is a type of sale consisting of a public competition between several buyers; whoever bids the highest price obtains the object being sold. Such auctions existed in the Greek as ... More


Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More


Antony Spawforth

Neologism of French scholarship (évergétisme, from εὐεργέτης, ‘benefactor’) to describe the socio-political phenomenon of voluntary gift-giving to the ancient community. Embracing the beneficence of ... More

frugality (frugalitas) and parsimony (parsimonia)  

Grant Nelsestuen

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Arising from the agrarian and domestic contexts of classical antiquity, the notion of “frugality” (frugalitas) was a positive, desirable, and in many respects distinctively Roman concept ... More

gifts and giving, Roman  

Neil Coffee

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Romans not only gave gifts to express emotion and build relationships; a long-standing tradition of mutual aid gave rise to more intensive exchange of gifts and services (or reciprocity), ... More

senate, regal and republican period  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the time of the *Gracchi (c.133–121 bce) the senate was a body of around 300 wealthy men of aristocratic birth, most of them ex-magistrates. Although the sources tend to assume that this state of ... More

wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More