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Aezani  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ... More

Albania, Transcaucasian  

David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Albania (Transcaucasian), the land between *Iberia and the *Caspian, to the north of *Media Atropatene: it now lies largely within northern Azerbaijan and Daghestan. Albania comprises an ... More

Apamea  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apamea, a city on the *Orontes, *Syria, which replaced the Macedonian military colony of Pella. It was founded by Seleucus I (or perhaps Antiochus I). It was the military headquarters of Seleucid ... More

Asia Minor, classical  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The geographical term Asia Minor is used to denote the westernmost part of the Asian continent, equivalent to modern Turkey between the Aegean and the Euphrates. The western and southern coastal ... More

Bactria  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Enormous region lying (roughly) between the *Oxus (Amu-Darya) to the north and the Hindu Kush to the south; the term occasionally also includes Sogdiana to the north (Tadjikistan/Uzbekistan). The ... More

Byzantium  

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the ... More

Cappadocia  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cappadocia, at one time designated the whole region between Lake Tatta and the *Euphrates, and from the *Euxine Sea to *Cilicia; but the northern part became ‘Cappadocian Pontus’ or simply ... More

Coptus  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Coptus (mod. Qift), a nome-capital of Upper *Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The temple of Min, repaired by Ptolemy II (see ptolemy(1)), remained important until the Christian period. ... More

Cyprus  

Hector Catling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cyprus, third largest Mediterranean island (9,282 sq. km.: 3,584 sq. mi.) was of strategic and economic importance to the Mediterranean and near eastern powers, and significant both to ... More

Ethiopia  

Robert G. Morkot

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ethiopia was a name usually applied by the Greeks to any region in the far south (but north of the equator). Perhaps originally designating radiance reflected by dwellers in the east from the morning ... More

Gaugamela  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gaugamela, village in Iraq (now Tell Gomel?), scene of *Alexander (3) the Great's decisive victory over *Darius III of Persia in 331 bce. The battle appears to have opened with a Persian ... More

Granicus  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
River in NW Asia Minor (now Kocabaş), scene of *Alexander (3) the Great's first victory over the Persians (334 bce). Of the sources *Arrian's version is probably preferable. Alexander ... More

Hellespontine Phrygia  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

The district of *Asia Minor closest to the *Hellespont. See dascylium; pharnabazus.

Hydaspes  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
River of the Punjab (probably the Jhelum), where *Alexander(3) the Great defeated *Porus in 326 bce. After continually stretching the enemy by marching and countermarching along the river, ... More

Jaffa  

Benjamin Isaac

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The city of Joppe/Jaffa/Yafo on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, immediately south of modern Tel Aviv, has a long history of importance as an urban centre, from the Middle Bronze ... More

Media Atropatene  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan), the NW corner and least accessible part of *Media, in the isolated mountainous zone of the Urmia basin, named after the Achaemenid satrap, Atropates ... More

Pergamum  

Antony Spawforth and Charlotte Roueché

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pergamum, in Mysia c.24 km. (15 miles) from the *Aegean, a natural fortress of great strategic importance commanding the rich plain of the river Caïcus; important historically as the capital of the ... More

Samosata  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Samosata (mod. Samsât), a fortified city on the right bank of the *Euphrates; the residence of the kings of *Commagene. Like *Zeugma, it guarded an important crossing of the river on one ... More

Synnada  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Synnada (mod. Şuhut), was an assize centre (see conventus(2)) in the province of Asia (see asia, roman province) and one of the most important cities of *Phrygia. In the 160s bce it played ... More

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