R. M. Errington
Aegina, island in Saronic Gulf, inhabited from late neolithic times and in contact with Minoan Crete and Mycenae. Early in the first millennium
‘Goat’s rivers’ in the *Hellespont, probably an open beach somewhere opposite *Lampacus, scene of the final and decisive sea-battle of the *Peloponnesian war, a victory over the Athenians by the Spartans under *Lysander (405). *Alcibiades, in exile in Thrace, had warned the Athenian generals (who included *Conon (1)) of the dangers of their exposed position, and may even have offered military help in the form of Thracians; but he was rebuffed. The accounts of how the battle started cannot be reconciled, but it is clear that, after several days of inactivity, the Athenians were caught with most of their ships unmanned.
Aeneas (Aineias) Tacticus, probably the Stymphalian general of the Arcadian koinon (see
Peter Sidney Derow
Agatharchides, of Cnidus, Greek historian, geographer, and Peripatetic philosopher, c. 215–after 145 BCE
Kenneth S. Sacks
Who lived most of his adult life in *Alexandria (1), eventually leaving, perhaps in flight to Athens after 145. He was not, as previously believed, regent to *Ptolemy (1) IX but was in the service of *Heraclides (3) Lembus. His major works, for which there are fragmentary remains, include: Asian Affairs (Τὰ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν), probably a universal history that extended to the *Diadochi; European Affairs (Τὰ κατὰ τὴν Εὐρώπην), perhaps to his own time; and On the Red Sea (Περὶ τῆς Ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης) in five books (some preserved by Diodorus, bk. 3, and Photius). These large-scale histories, interlaced with *anthropology and *geography, provided a model for *Posidonius (2). He attacked the Asianic prose style, and *Photius calls him a worthy disciple of *Thucydides (2) in expression. He may have voiced hostility toward the Ptolemies, from whom he may have fled.
Albert Brian Bosworth
Agis III, king of Sparta (338–?330
Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth
P. J. Rhodes
Henry Dickinson Westlake and P. J. Rhodes
Alcidas, Spartan commander in the early part of the *Peloponnesian War, failed to help *Mytilene in its revolt from Athens 428–7 and treated prisoners brutally (Thuc. 3. 17, 29–33) so creating doubts about Sparta's role as ‘liberator’ (the role: Thuc. 2. 8). He reappears as commander at *Corcyra, though with *Brasidas as ‘adviser’ (3. 69–80); and finally as a *founder of *Heraclea (4) in Trachis, perhaps chosen because of his religiously appropriate name (Alcides = *Heracles), though *Thucydides (2) characteristically does not say so. But the colony failed, not least because of Spartan harshness—another hit at Alcidas (Thuc. 3. 92–3, echoing 3. 32. 2, cf. 5. 52; Thucydides' repeated language makes the point that behaviour like Alcidas' damaged Sparta's image).