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Aeneas Tacticus  

David Whitehead

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aeneas (Aineias) Tacticus, probably the Stymphalian general of the Arcadian koinon (see arcadian league) in 367 bce (Xen. Hell. 7. 3. 1); anyway the earlies (-surviving) and most ... More

Aeschines (2) Socraticus  

Michael Gagarin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(4th cent. bce), of the *deme of Sphettus in Attica, a devoted follower of *Socrates, was present at his trial and death. He wrote speeches for the lawcourts and taught oratory, but fell ... More

alcoholism, Greek  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Greeks were unfamiliar with modern concepts of alcoholism, but they were well aware of self-destructive drinking and the effects of habitual drunkenness. In the Odyssey, *Homer makes a ... More

Appian  

Kai Brodersen

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Appian (Ἀππιανός) of Alexandria, Greek historian. Born in *Alexandria (1) at the end of the 1st cent. ce, he experienced the Jewish rising of ce 116/7, became a Roman citizen, moved to Rome as an ... More

Arrian, c. 86–160 CE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Born in *Nicomedia in *Bithynia, he held local office and pursued studies with *Epictetus, whose lectures he later published (allegedly verbatim) as the Discourses and summarized in the Encheiridion ... More

Asclepiades (4), of Myrleia in Bithynia, Greek author, 1st cent. BCE  

Peter Barr Reid Forbes and Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Asclepiades (4), of Myrleia in *Bithynia (1st cent. bce), worked in Spain, and wrote on the history of Bithynia, and of scholarship; on *Homer and *Theocritus; and, as Atticist analogist, Περὶ ... More

biography, Greek  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
1. Biography in antiquity was not a rigidly defined genre. Bios, ‘life’, or bioi, ‘lives’, could span a range of types of writing, from *Plutarch's cradle-to-grave accounts of statesmen to ... More

Callias (5), of Syracuse, Greek historian at court of Agathocles (1)  

Godfrey Louis Barber and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Callias (5), of *Syracuse, lived at the court of *Agathocles (1), tyrant of Syracuse (316–289 bce), and wrote a history of his reign in 22 books. It so favoured Agathocles that Callias was ... More

Demosthenes(2), Athenian orator, 384–322 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The greatest Athenian orator. When Demosthenes was 7 years old his father died, leaving the management of his estate to his brothers, Aphobus and Demophon, and a friend, Therippides. The trustees ... More

education, Greek  

Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Greek ideas of education (paideia), whether theoretical or practical, encompassed upbringing and cultural training in the widest sense, not merely schooling and formal education. The poets were ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More

explanation, historical  

Christopher Pelling

‘Which of the gods was it that brought the two together in strife?’, asks the Iliad as it launches its narrative (1.8); early in the Odyssey*Zeus complains that mortals blame the gods when ... More

Herodotus (1), of Halicarnassus, historian  

John P. A. Gould

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herodotus (1), of Halicarnassus (now Bodrum on the Aegean coast of Turkey), historian. ‘Herodotus’ is (in Greek) the first word of a long historical narrative, the earliest we possess. It looks back ... More

masturbation  

Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

papyrology, Greek  

H. Maehler

Papyrus, manufactured in Egypt since c.3000 bce from a marsh plant, Cyperus papyrus (see books, greek and roman), was the most widely used writing material in the Graeco-Roman world. The object of ... More

Polybius (1), Greek historian, c. 200–c. 118 BCE  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Greek historian of Rome's rise to Mediterranean dominion and of the world in which that happened. His father, *Lycortas of Megalopolis, was a leading figure of the *Achaean Confederacy in the 180s ... More

Solon, Athenian politician and poet  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Solon, Athenian politician and poet, was of noble descent but, whether or not the tradition that he was of moderate means is correct, came to sympathize with the poor. He was prominent in the war ... More

Thucydides (2), Athenian historian, 2nd half of 5th cent. BCE  

Henry Theodore Wade-Gery, John Dewar Denniston, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Thucydides (2), author of the (incomplete) History of the War (*Peloponnesian War) between Athens and Sparta, 431–404 bce, in eight books.He was born probably between 460 and 455 bce: he was general ... More

warfare, attitudes to, Greek and Hellenistic  

Michel Austin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Homer'sIliad, a poem about war, does not glorify war: it celebrates martial prowess but also portrays the sufferings caused by war, and *Ares, god of war, is rebuked by Zeus as the most hateful of ... More

Xenophon (1), Greek historian  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophon, son of Gryllus, from the Athenian *deme of Erchia, was born into a wealthy but politically inactive family around 430 bce. He presumably served in the cavalry (see hippeis (2) and (4)) and ... More

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