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Jonathan Coulston

Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and ... More


Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More


Antony Spawforth

Neologism of French scholarship (évergétisme, from εὐεργέτης, ‘benefactor’) to describe the socio-political phenomenon of voluntary gift-giving to the ancient community. Embracing the beneficence of ... More

explanation, historical  

Christopher Pelling

‘Which of the gods was it that brought the two together in strife?’, asks the Iliad as it launches its narrative (1.8); early in the Odyssey*Zeus complains that mortals blame the gods when ... More

Greece, prehistory and history  

Paul Halstead, O. T. P. K. Dickinson, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

The stone age is divided into the palaeolithic (to c.9000 bce), mesolithic (c.9000–7000 bce) and neolithic (7th–4th millennia bce); *metallurgy began during the neolithic, before the conventional ... More


Michel Austin and John Stuart Richardson

See carthage.One Greek definition of *freedom included the ability of a state to exercise rule over others (cf. Hdt. 1. 210; Thuc. 8. 68. 4; Arist. Pol. 1333b38–1334a2; Polyb. 5. 106. 4–5). The ... More


Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More


Antony Spawforth

Greek (followed by Roman) writers lumped together as nomads (νομάδες, formed on νομός, ‘pasture’) all pastoral groups for whom wandering was a way of life, without distinguishing (as does the modern ... More

Polyaenus (2), Macedonian rhetorician  

Brian Campbell

Polyaenus (2), a Macedonian rhetorician, dedicated his collection of Strategemata (stratagems) in eight books to Marcus *Aurelius and Lucius *Verus. It is wide-ranging, including exploits by gods, ... More

postal service  

Nicholas Purcell

The Greek poleis communicated by professional messengers (hemerodromoi, like *Phidippides, on land; there were also messenger-ships), but developed no other general infrastructure for communications. ... More


Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth

Prosopography is a modern term for the study of individuals, and is derived from the Greek prosōpon, one meaning of which is ‘person’. There is no agreed or official definition of ... More

Ptolemy(1), name of the Macedonian kings of Egypt  

Dorothy J. Thompson, Albert Brian Bosworth, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

The name of all the Macedonian kings of Egypt.(‘Saviour’) (c. 367–282 bce) son of Lagus and Arsinoë, served *Alexander (3) the Great of Macedon as an experienced general and childhood friend. At Susa ... More

reception in historical novels  

Tom Stevenson

Reception in historical novels set in ancient Greece and Rome differs fundamentally between the 19th and the 20th/21st centuries. In the 19th century, reception was governed heavily by ... More

sea power, Greek and Roman  

Simon Hornblower

The Greek for sea power is θαλασσοκρατία, thalassocracy. In a simple sense sea power has been exercised for as long as human beings have used ships for military purposes. But Greeks started thinking ... More

Timagenes, of Alexandria (1), Greek rhetor and historian  

Livia Capponi

Timagenes of Alexandria (1), according to Suda the son of a royal banker (βασιλικοῦ ἀργυραμοιβοῦ υἱός), was a Greek rhetor and historian, who came to Rome as a captive in 55 bce with Gabinius(2) and ... More