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  • Greek Material Culture: Bronze Age x
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amphorae and amphora stamps, Greek  

Alan Johnston and Virginia Randolph Grace

The amphora is one of the most versatile and long-lived pot shapes. A two-handled jar (amphi-phoreus, ‘carried on both sides’), it can vary enormously in size, detail of shape, and manner ... More

Antissa  

D. Graham J. Shipley

Antissa, small coastal *polis in NW *Lesbos; birthplace of the poet *Terpander. A bronze age site has been explored; the Classical town originated in the early geometric period. Three ... More

archaeology, underwater  

A. J. Parker

The potential richness of the sea for salvage or accidental finding of sunken valuables was recognized from earliest times, but the possibility of defining meaningful groups of wrecked material or of ... More

archives, Greek  

Rosalind Thomas

(τὰ δεμόσια γράμματα and variations; ἀρχεῖον is mainly Hellenistic). In Archaic Greece, documentation was minimal, laws being the most important public documents; lists of officials and agonistic ... More

arms and armour, Greek  

Herbert William Parke and Michael Vickers

Most Homeric references to arms and armour are best interpreted in connection with Minoan and Mycenaean armaments, known from such representations as those on the shaft-grave daggers (see mycenae). ... More

Athens, topography  

John McKesson Camp II

The central fortress and principal sanctuary of *Athena, patron goddess of the city. In the later 13th cent. bce the steep hill was enclosed by a massive wall. Within, there are Mycenaean terraces, ... More

Buthrotum  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Buthrotum (now Butrinto, uninhabited), founded traditionally by the Trojan *Helenus on a low hill at the seaward end of a narrow channel leading from a lake, possessed fine harbours and fisheries and ... More

Cnossus, Greek and Roman  

Lucia F. Nixon and Simon Price

A town on Crete. It flourished from the 9th to the 6th cent., to judge from the evidence of large numbers of tombs (protogeometric to orientalizing periods), but seems to have lost power in the ... More

dead, disposal of  

Ian Morris

Correct disposal of the dead was always a crucial element in easing the *soul of the deceased into the next world. However, the forms of burial varied enormously. Great significance was attached to ... More

fortifications, Greek  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Eric William Marsden, and Richard Allan Tomlinson

In the Aegean area small towns with perimeter walls appear early in the bronze age (Khalandriani). More usual is the fortified acropolis, increasingly developed in the troubled times of the late ... More

gems  

Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers

Precious stones were valued in antiquity as possessing magical and medicinal virtues, as ornaments, and as seals when engraved with a device. Such engravings (intaglios) in soft media like steatite ... More

horse- and chariot-races  

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, ... More

land division, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Traces of regular division of settlement space have been found even in Dark-Age Zagora on *Andros. Some early Greek colonies (see colonization, greek), notably *Megara Hyblaea, show a degree of ... More

metallurgy, Greek  

John Ellis Jones

Metallurgy covers all processes involving native metal or metallic ores after mining (concentration, smelting, refining) up to the production of artefacts. Understanding these depends less on ... More

pastoralism, Greek  

Stephen Hodkinson

Although animals were ubiquitous throughout the Greek countryside, animal husbandry has until recently received little systematic attention; hence current interpretations are frequently embryonic. ... More

polychromy, sculptural, Greek and Roman  

Jan Stubbe Østergaard

The term “polychromy” has been in use since the early 19th century to denote the presence of any element of colour in Greek and Roman sculpture. The evidence for such polychromy is ... More

pottery, Greek  

Karim Arafat and Catherine A. Morgan

Pottery is a primary source of evidence thoughout the Greek period. Pervasive and almost indestructible, its generally predictable development means that it provides a framework to which other arts ... More

Tegea  

James Roy

Tegea, a *polis of SE *Arcadia situated in a high upland basin crossed by important routes to *Argos(1), Sparta, and SW and E. Arcadia. The polis was formed from nine local communities, but when an ... More

weighing instruments  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

The balance (σταθμός, libra, bilanx) of two pans at equal distance from the point of suspension is an invention of the earliest times; in Mycenaean tablets (see mycenaean language) it is the symbol ... More

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