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alcoholism, Roman  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury ... More

annals and annalists  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Latin word annales (‘yearbooks’, ‘annals’) became the standard term for historical records in a general sense, and was frequently used by historians as a title for their works, probably in ... More

Asinius Quadratus, Gaius  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Asinius Quadratus, Gaius, author of the Thousand Years (Χιλιετηρίς), a fifteen-book history of Rome from the beginnings to Severus Alexander with a Greek slant (it was written in Ionic Greek and ... More

Cincius Alimentus, Lucius, Roman senator and historian  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lucius Cincius Alimentus, Roman senator and historian, was praetor in Sicily in 210/9 bce, and was captured by Hannibal (Livy 21. 38. 3). His history of Rome, written in Greek, set the foundation of ... More

Claudius Atticus Herodes (2), Tiberius, 'Herodes Atticus'  

Ewen Bowie and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius (Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes) Claudius Atticus Herodes (2), ‘Herodes Atticus’ (c. 101–77 ce), celebrated Athenian sophist and benefactor of Greek cities, ... More

Claudius Balbillus, Tiberius, Roman tribunus militum and author, 43 CE  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Probably a son of Tiberius *Claudius Thrasyllus and shared his astrological lore. (See astrology.) He was ADC (praefectus fabrum, see fabri) to *Claudius and tribune of Legio XX in the invasion of ... More

Cornificius, Quintus  

Theodore John Cadoux and Robin Seager

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quintus Cornificius, of recent senatorial family, was an orator and poet and a friend of *Catullus and *Cicero (cf. Catull. 38. 1, Cic.Fam. 12. 17–30). He wrote a lost *epyllionGlaucus. As quaestor ... More

Cremutius Cordus, Aulus  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Aulus Cremutius Cordus, the historian, writing under *Augustus (Suet.Tib. 61. 3) and *Tiberius, treated the period from the Civil Wars to at least 18 bce (Suet. Aug. 35. 2). Refusing to ... More

Dexippus, Publius Herennius, Athenian notable and historian, 3rd cent. CE  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Athenian notable and historian (3rd cent. CE), author of (1) an account of the Successor-period (Τὰ μετὰ Ἀλέξανδρον), lost; (2) a History from mythical times to ce 269/70 in twelve books ... More

education, Roman  

J. V. Muir

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by ... More

explanation, historical  

Christopher Pelling

‘Which of the gods was it that brought the two together in strife?’, asks the Iliad as it launches its narrative (1.8); early in the Odyssey*Zeus complains that mortals blame the gods when ... More

Florus  

Edward Seymour Forster, Gavin B. Townend, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Florus, the name of three Latin authors, is usually, but not unanimously, identified as the same man. (1) Lucius Annaeus (Iulius in Cod. Bamberg) Florus, Roman historian, author of the ... More

Furius Antias, Aulus, fl. 100 BCE  

John Wight Duff

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Aulus Furius Antias (i.e. of Antium), (fl. 100 bce), friend of Q. *Lutatius Catulus (1) (Cic.Brut. 132), epic poet influenced by Ennius and in turn influencing Virgil. From his Annales, a ... More

Granius Licinianus  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Author of a compendium of Roman history. The arrangement is annalistic (see annals), with digressions; most of the material seems to come ultimately from *Livy, but he knows other authors ... More

Livy  

John Briscoe

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Livy (Titus Livius), the Roman historian, lived 59 bce– 17ce (although Syme has argued for 64 bce– 12ce). He was born and died at ... More

Marius, Maximus  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marius Maximus, biographer of twelve emperors from *Nerva to *Elagabalus, continuator and imitator of *Suetonius. He is probably the Marius Maximus who governed Syria, Africa, and Asia, ... More

papyrology, Latin  

J. David Thomas

In comparison with Greek papyri, Latin papyri are uncommon, even when “papyri” is understood in a wide sense so as to include *ostraca and parchment scraps. This is so because the vast majority of ... More

Pliny (1) the Elder, 23/24–79 CE  

Nicholas Purcell

Gaius Plinius Secundus, prominent Roman equestrian, from Novum *Comum in Gallia Cisalpina (see gaul (cisalpine)), commander of the fleet at *Misenum, and uncle of *Pliny (2) the Younger, best known ... More

Pliny (2) the Younger, c. 61–c. 112 CE  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus is known from his writings and from inscriptions (e.g. ILS 2927). Son of a landowner of *Comum, he was brought up by his uncle, *Pliny (1) the Elder, an equestrian ... More

Pompeius Trogus  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Trogus Pompeius, a Romanized Vocontian from Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), author of zoological, and perhaps botanical works, now lost, and the Philippic Histories (Historiae ... More

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