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Aeschines (2) Socraticus  

Michael Gagarin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(4th cent. bce), of the *deme of Sphettus in Attica, a devoted follower of *Socrates, was present at his trial and death. He wrote speeches for the lawcourts and taught oratory, but fell ... More

Alcinous (2)  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alcinous (2), accredited in the MSS as author of the Didaskalikos, or ‘Handbook of Platonism’, a summary of *Plato (1)'s doctrines designed as a handbook for the general public. He was long ... More

Apollodorus (6), of Athens, Greek author, c. 180–after 120 BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apollodorus (6), of Athens (c.180–after 120 bce), studied in Athens with the Stoic *Diogenes (3) of Babylon, collaborated with *Aristarchus (2) in Alexandria, perhaps fled (in 146 ?), probably to ... More

Arrian, c. 86–160 CE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Born in *Nicomedia in *Bithynia, he held local office and pursued studies with *Epictetus, whose lectures he later published (allegedly verbatim) as the Discourses and summarized in the Encheiridion ... More

Chamaeleon  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chamaeleon, of *Heraclea (3) Pontica (c.350–after 281 bce), Greek *Peripatetic writer; almost no biographical details exist. He wrote works on *satyric drama and comedy, and studies of a ... More

Claudius Aristocles, Tiberius  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tiberius Claudius Aristocles of *Pergamum (2nd cent. ce), was a Peripatetic philosopher turned sophist who also held the consulship. As sophist he studied under *Herodes Atticus, taught in ... More

Crates (2), of Thebes, Greek philosopher and poet, c. 368/365–288/285 BCE  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crates (2), of *Thebes (1) (c.368/365–288/285 bce), *Cynic philosopher and poet. Moving to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of *Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he ... More

Dicaearchus  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Dicaearchus of *Messana, Greek polymath and prolific writer, pupil of *Aristotle and contemporary of *Theophrastus and *Aristoxenus: fl. c.320–300 bce. He spent some of his life in the *Peloponnese. ... More

Dio Cocceianus  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Dio Cocceianus, later surnamed Chrysostom (c.40/50-110/120 ce), Greek orator, writer, local politician and moralist, pursued a double career, as member of the governing elite of his home ... More

education, Greek  

Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Greek ideas of education (paideia), whether theoretical or practical, encompassed upbringing and cultural training in the widest sense, not merely schooling and formal education. The poets were ... More

Favorinus, sophist, philosopher, and man of letters, c. 85–155 CE  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Favorinus (Φαβωρῖνος, born in Arelate (mod. Arles), learned Greek in (?) Marseilles (see massalia), and worked exclusively in that language for the whole of his professional career; he may also have ... More

flight of the mind  

M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In *Pindar (fr. 292 SnellMaehler) and *Bacchylides (5. 16ff) flight is a metaphor for elevation of poetic style. The philosopher *Parmenides (DK 28 B 1) spoke of his own ascent to knowledge as a ... More

friendship, ritualized  

G. Herman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Friendship, ritualized (or guest-friendship), a bond of trust, imitating kinship and reinforced by rituals, generating affection and obligations between individuals belonging to separate social ... More

Gorgias (1) of Leontini, orator, c. 485–c. 380 BCE  

Josh Wilburn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gorgias of Leontini, orator, c. 485–c. 380 bce, was one of the most well-known and influential of the early Greek rhetoricians. He spent much of his life as an itinerant speaker and ... More

hubris  

N. R. E. Fisher

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Hubris, intentionally dishonouring behaviour, was a powerful term of moral condemnation in ancient Greece; and in Athens, and perhaps elsewhere, it was also treated as a serious crime. The common use ... More

materialism  

James I. Porter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Materialism, the belief that matter is a primary constituent of reality, is a constant feature of ancient Greek and Roman thought, and also one of its most contested and productive ideas: ... More

poetic unity, Greek  

Richard Hunter

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Greek discussion of unified organic form, as both a biological principle and a literary virtue, has been very influential in Western criticism. What survives before late antiquity of that Greek ... More

Satyrus (1), Peripatetic author, fl. 3rd cent. BCE  

Stephanie West

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Peripatetic author from Callatis (Mangalia, Romania). Works: (1)Bioi (Lives) of kings, statesmen, orators, philosophers, and poets, known chiefly from citations by *Athenaeus (1) and *Diogenes (6) ... More

the self in Greek literature  

Christopher Gill

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The notion of “self” is a non-technical one, bridging the areas of psychology and ethics or social relations. Criteria for selfhood include psychological unity or cohesion, agency, ... More

Xenophanes, of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophanes of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher, left Ionia (see ionians) at the age of 25, probably after the Persian Conquest in 545 bce, and led a wandering life for 67 years, ... More

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