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Actium  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Actium (Ἄκτιον), a flat sandy promontory at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf, forming part of the territory of Anactorium, as well as the NW extremity of *Acarnania. A cult of Apollo was located ... More

Aesernia  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aesernia (mod. Isernia), a strong site near the upper Volturnus river, controlling NW *Samnium. Originally a Samnite town, a Latin colony (see ius latii) established here after the Samnite Wars (263 ... More

Africa, Roman  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. ... More

Antium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. ... More

Asia, Roman province  

William Moir Calder, Eric William Gray, and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Attalus III of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. After his death in 133 bce it was constituted as provincia Asia by M. *Aquillius (1). Originally it consisted of Mysia, the ... More

Britain, Roman  

Martin Millett

The province of Britannia. The oldest name of the island known to us is *Albion; the earliest form of the present name, Πρεττανία, was used by the Greeks. The Latin Britannia was in use by the 1st ... More

Capitol/Capitolium  

Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with ... More

Germans  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Germans (Germani), after the *Celts the second major linguistic and cultural grouping encountered by the Graeco-Roman world in northern Europe. It was the Romans' failure, between 12 bce and 9ce, to ... More

Hippalus  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The merchant discoverer, in the Augustan or Tiberian age, of new ways of navigating the Arabian Sea: specifically the possibility of using the (very violent: his ships must have been ... More

Pharsalus  

Bruno Helly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pharsalus, city in *Thessaly, on the southern border of the central valley of the river *Enipeus, near a crossroads linking the *Adriatic to the *Aegean and central Greece and Thessaly to *Macedonia. ... More

Pydna  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The battle of Pydna takes its name from the town on the north-east coast of Greece, where the Romans under L. *Aemilius Paullus (2) put an end to the Macedonian monarchy by defeating king ... More

Regillus lake  

Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lake Regillus, the site of an alleged heroic Roman victory (aided by the intervention of *Castor and Pollux) over the *Latini (led by Octav(i)us *Mamilius) in 499 or 496 bce, was in Tusculan ... More

Rubico, commonly called Rubicon  

Edward Togo Salmon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Rubico (commonly called Rubicon), reddish stream flowing into the Adriatic and marking the boundary between Italy and *Gaul (Cisalpine): possibly the modern Pisciatello. In 49 bce*Caesar, ... More

Tarpeian Rock  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A precipitous cliff on the *Capitol from which murderers and traitors were thrown (see tarpeia). Some ancient sources (e.g. Varro, Ling. 5. 41) place it close to the temple of *Jupiter ... More

Trasimene, Lake, battle of  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
An ambush on a huge scale, Trasimene was the second of Hannibal's victories. The consul, C. *Flaminius (1), with probably some 25,000 men, followed Hannibal, with perhaps some 60,000, into ... More

Uxellodunum  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Uxellodunum, an *oppidum of the Cadurci, in 51 bce the scene of the last Gallic resistance to *Caesar, who took it by diverting its spring. The precise location of the place remains a little ... More

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