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cliens  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Rome a client was a free man who entrusted himself to another and received protection in return. Clientship was a hereditary social status consecrated by usage and recognized, though not defined ... More

client kings  

David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The term ‘client kings’ is conventionally used by scholars to denote a range of monarchs and quasi-monarchs of non-Roman peoples who enjoyed a relationship with Rome that was essentially harmonious ... More

collegium  

Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

consul  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The title of the chief annual civil and military magistrates of Rome during the republic. Two consuls were elected annually for most, if not all, of the republic by the centuriate assembly (see ... More

Coruncanius, Tiberius  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius Coruncanius, from *Tusculum, consul 280 bce, dictator (for elections) 246, died 243. As consul he celebrated a triumph over *Volsinii and *Vulci and was active with his colleague (P. ... More

cursus honorum  

T. Corey Brennan

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Down to the 3rd cent. bce there were perhaps few rules concerning the cursus honorum (career path) other than a requisite period of military service before seeking the political offices open to one's ... More

dictator  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
An extraordinary supreme magistracy at Rome, used first in military, later in domestic crises.In Latin cities we find the name ‘dictator’ given to a regular magistracy, but there is no evidence that ... More

education, Roman  

J. V. Muir

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by ... More

fasces  

Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comprised bundles of rods, approximately 1.5 m. (5 ft.) long and of elm- or birchwood, and a single-headed axe; they were held together by red thongs and carried by *lictores. An iron set from a late ... More

imperium  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Imperium was the supreme power, involving command in war and the interpretation and execution of law (including the infliction of the death penalty), which belonged at Rome to the kings (see rex) ... More

lex Ovinia  

Charles Bartlett

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The lex Ovinia, or more properly, the plebiscitum Ovinium, is a plebiscite that transferred the power to determine membership in the Roman Senate from the consuls or chief magistrates to the censors. ... More

lex Publilia Philonis  

Charles Bartlett

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The lex Publilia Philonis of 339bce addressed two issues of importance for the functioning of the Senate. The first concerned the auctoritas of the body, and did away with the practice of senatorial ... More

papyrology, Latin  

J. David Thomas

In comparison with Greek papyri, Latin papyri are uncommon, even when “papyri” is understood in a wide sense so as to include *ostraca and parchment scraps. This is so because the vast majority of ... More

plebs  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Plebs, the name given to the mass of Roman citizens, as distinct from the privileged patricians, perhaps related to the Greek term for the masses, plethos. A modern hypothesis that the plebs was ... More

praetor  

T. Corey Brennan and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Praetor’ (from prae-ire, ‘to precede’, i.e. in battle) was originally the title borne by the two republican magistrates who were chosen annually to serve as eponymous heads of state. In 367 bce the ... More

pro consule, pro praetore  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pro consule, pro praetore, a magistrate (see magistracy, roman) in place of a *consul or *praetor respectively, operating outside Rome and outside the regular annual magistracy.The first instance is ... More

Sempronius Gracchus (1), Tiberius, Roman consul, 214 and 213 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (1), son of a consul of 238 bce, as curule aedile (216) was made magister equitum after *Cannae and at once consul (215). With an army including slaves he relieved *Cumae ... More

Sempronius Gracchus (2), Tiberius, Roman censor, 169 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (2), nephew of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (1), served under L. *Cornelius Scipio Asiagenes in 190 bce, and as tribune 187 or 184 supported Scipio in his trial. (The ... More

Sempronius Gracchus, Tiberius (3), Roman tribune, 133 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, son of (2) and of *Cornelia, served at Carthage under his cousin P. *Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, who married his sister. As quaestor in Spain (137 bce), he used his ... More

Sempronius Gracchus, Gaius  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, younger brother of Ti. *Sempronius Gracchus (3), served under his cousin and brother-in-law P. *Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus at *Numantia. A member of his brother's land ... More

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