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abortion  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More

Achaemenids  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
The term, as used by Herodotus (1. 125), refers to one of the three clans (phrētrē) of the Pasargadae tribe to which the Persian kings belonged; its eponymous ancestor was supposedly Achaemenes (Hdt. ... More

acta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Acta means ‘the things that have been done’ and has two specialized, overlapping senses in Roman history; one is a gazette, the other is official acts, especially of an emperor.The Acta diurna were a ... More

Actaeon  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Actaeon, in mythology son of *Aristaeus and Autonoë, daughter of *Cadmus, and a great huntsman. Ovid gives the most familiar version of his death (Met. 3. 138 ff.): one day on Mt. Cithaeron he came ... More

Actium  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Actium (Ἄκτιον), a flat sandy promontory at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf, forming part of the territory of Anactorium, as well as the NW extremity of *Acarnania. A cult of Apollo was located ... More

Adriatic Sea  

Max Cary and W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Adriatic Sea (Gk. ὁ Ἀδρίας; Lat. Mare adriaticum or superum), used as an alternative to ‘*Ionian Sea’ for the waters between the Balkan peninsula and Italy, and like ‘Ionian’, sometimes extended to ... More

aes  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aes, bronze, also more loosely copper or brass, hence (a) money, coinage, pay, period for which pay is due, campaign; (b) document on bronze. The earliest Roman monetary ... More

Aesop  

J. S. Rusten

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aesop, as legendary a figure as Homer. What we now call *fables (Gk. αἶνοι, μῦθοι, λόγοι), i.e. stories clearly fictitious (often about speaking animals), which illustrate a point or support an ... More

Aetna (1), volcano of Sicily  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aetna (1), Europe's highest active volcano (3,326 m. (10,912 ft.) in 1966), lying between *Tauromenium and *Catana in eastern Sicily. The lower slopes are remarkably fertile, principally today in ... More

Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

Alaric  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Alaric, Gothic leader c. 395–410 ce who created the *Visigoths. By 408 he had united the Tervingi and Greuthungi who had crossed the Danube in 376 with survivors of Radagaisus' force which ... More

alliance, Greek  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fundamentally, an agreement between states to fight together (symmachein) against a common enemy, so that the standard term is symmachia. Such alliances might be made either for a limited period or ... More

Ambrose, b. 340 CE  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Ambrose (Ambrosius), son of a praetorian prefect of Gaul, Ambrose was well educated and achieved official success under the patronage of the great prefects Sex. Claudius *Petronius Probus and Q. ... More

amnesty  

Stephen Todd

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
To propose or demand the recall of *exiles was common throughout the Greek world, and attempts by such exiles to recover confiscated property frequently provoked further strife (e.g. Xen. Hell. 5. 3. ... More

Anaximenes (1)  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Anaximenes (1), of *Miletus (traditional floruit 546–525 bce) followed in the footsteps of *Anaximander in composing a treatise in Ionian prose in which he developed a world system on the ... More

Anchises  

Stephen J. Harrison

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Anchises, character in literature and mythology, son of Capys, father of *Aeneas, and member of the Trojan royal house. He does not appear in person in *Homer's Iliad, but the Homeric *Hymn to ... More

annona (other products)  

Carlos Machado

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The annona was the imperial service responsible for overseeing the supply of key food items to the city of Rome and the army. Primarily concerned with grain, the service became ... More

Antipater (1), Macedonian statesman, 397?–319 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Trusted lieutenant of *Philip (1) II, he represented the king at Athens in 346 and 338, and governed Macedon during the Danubian campaign of *Alexander (3) the Great (335). From 334 he acted as ... More

Aquitania  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A name originally applied to the area bounded by the Garonne, the Pyrenees, and the bay of Biscay. The Aquitani are described as differing from the other Gauls in speech, customs, and physique, and ... More

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known ... More

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