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adaeratio  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Adaeratio, the procedure whereby dues to the Roman state in kind were commuted to cash payments. The related word adaerare first appears in ce 383 (Cod. Theod. 7. 18. 8) and the practice is ... More

aerarii  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarii, payers, were a class of Roman citizens who had incurred the *censors' condemnation for some moral or other misbehaviour. They were required to pay the poll-tax (*tributum) at a ... More

aerarium  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state ... More

aes  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aes, bronze, also more loosely copper or brass, hence (a) money, coinage, pay, period for which pay is due, campaign; (b) document on bronze. The earliest Roman monetary ... More

alimenta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The purpose of the alimentary foundations in the Roman empire was to give an allowance for feeding children, and this was achieved by the investment of capital in mortgage on land, the ... More

amber  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Amber, a fossil resin, has a wide natural distribution in northern Europe and is also found in Sicily: so far as is known, the amber from the classical Mediterranean was Baltic. It has been found at ... More

annona (grain)  

Paul Erdkamp

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Imperial Rome was by far the largest city of its time, and feeding its populace—about one million according to most estimates—required an ever-watchful eye on the part of the authorities. ... More

annona (other products)  

Carlos Machado

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The annona was the imperial service responsible for overseeing the supply of key food items to the city of Rome and the army. Primarily concerned with grain, the service became ... More

apodektai  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apodektai (‘receivers’), at Athens, a board of officials who received the state's revenues and, in the 5th cent. bce, paid them into the central state treasury, in the 4th, apportioned them ... More

arbitration, Greek  

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The submission of disputes to a neutral person or body, whose verdict the disputants agreed in advance to accept, was recognized among Greeks from earliest times. Many states (e.g. Sparta, Gortyn, ... More

arbitration, Roman  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For private arbitration see D. Roebuck and B. de Loynes de Fumichon, Roman Arbitration (2004). The history of Roman inter-state arbitration begins with the intervention of Rome as a great power in ... More

aristocracy, attitudes to  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Élites in Greek and Roman societies were identified in a number of ways, of which the most important and inclusive was the sharing in the appreciation, discussion, and propagation of the cultural ... More

artisans and craftsmen  

Antony Spawforth

In Greece the prejudices of the (largely landowning) citizen-élites against the activities of ‘mechanics’ (banausoi), often slaves, *freedmen, or *metics, subjected artisans to formal handicaps in ... More

Ateste  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ateste (mod. Este) has given its name to one of the principal iron age cultures of northern Italy, lasting from the 9th cent. bce until its peaceful annexation by Rome in 184 bce. Until ce ... More

auctions  

Jean Andreau

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
An auction is a type of sale consisting of a public competition between several buyers; whoever bids the highest price obtains the object being sold. Such auctions existed in the Greek as ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

banks  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In antiquity banks supplied a selection of the services familiar from their modern counterparts. None the less, the essential banking function, receipt of deposits which might then be lent at ... More

bee-keeping  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bee-keeping had the same importance for antiquity that sugar production has now. Honey-gathering preceded the culture of bees which began perhaps in the mesolithic period. The evidence for ... More

booty  

Michel Austin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
‘It is a law established for all time among all men that when a city is taken in war, the persons and the property of its inhabitants belong to the captors’ (Xen.Cyr. 7. 5. 73). This universal ... More

bribery, Greek  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Much Greek vocabulary for bribery is neutral (‘persuade by gifts/money’, ‘receiving gifts’), although pejorative terms like ‘gift-swallowing’ are found as early as Hesiod (Op. 37 ff.). ... More

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