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Acts of the Apostles  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
The second of two volumes which continues the story of the rise and spread of *Christianity begun in the gospel of Luke. Its textual history poses peculiar interpretative problems as it is extant in ... More

Ambrose, b. 340 CE  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Ambrose (Ambrosius), son of a praetorian prefect of Gaul, Ambrose was well educated and achieved official success under the patronage of the great prefects Sex. Claudius *Petronius Probus and Q. ... More

Ambrosiaster  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Christianity
(i.e. pseudo-Ambrose), the author of the Commentary on Thirteen Pauline Letters (except Hebrews) handed down under the name of *Ambrose. Attempts at identifying the author have not yet ... More

Antonius Abba, 251?–356 CE  

Samuel Rubenson

Online publication date:
May 2016
Subject:
Christianity
Among the first generations of the Egyptian monastic movement of the 4th century ce, Antonius, generally referred to as Saint Antony, stands out as the most important and best documented figure. The ... More

apologists, Christian  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The modern collective term appears to go back to F. Morel (Corpus Apologetarum, 1615) and P. Maran (1742; cf. PG 6). The idea as such, however, is much older, as can be seen from the codex Paris. gr. ... More

Areopagus  

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Areopagus, the ‘Hill of Ares’ (Ἄρειος πάγος) at *Athens, north-west of the Acropolis, and the ancient council associated with it. There are no substantial remains on the hill; the council's ... More

Arianism  

David M. Gwynn

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Arianism, the polemical term used to describe a wide spectrum of 4th-cent. Christian theological beliefs that subordinated God the Son to God the Father. The name derives from the presbyter *Arius, ... More

Arius, c. 260–336 CE  

John Norman Davidson Kelly and David M. Gwynn

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Remembered as the great heresiarch of the 4th-cent. Church. Probably Libyan by birth, he became a leading presbyter at *Alexandria (1), but in 318 or 320/1 came into conflict with his ... More

Arnobius  

William Hugh Clifford Frend and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Arnobius, a teacher of rhetoric at *Sicca Veneria in Proconsular Numidia, said by *Jerome to have taught *Lactantius and to have suddenly become a Christian (c.295); see christianity. A year or two ... More

asceticism  

Philip Rousseau and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Christianity
“Discipline” is the common translation of the Greek noun askêsis. Its English derivative “asceticism” denotes a sustained routine of abstinence, more severe than the occasional self-denial ... More

Athanasius, c. 295–373 CE  

John Norman Davidson Kelly and David M. Gwynn

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Athanasius was one of the greatest fathers of the 4th-century Church. As a deacon he attended the council of *Nicaea (1) (325), and in 328 he was appointed bishop of *Alexandria (1). ... More

Augustine, St, Aurelius Augustinus, 354–430 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
St Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus (354–430 ce), was born at Thagaste (mod. Souk Ahras, Algeria), son of Patricius, a modest town councillor of pagan beliefs, and a dominant Catholic ... More

Avitus, Alcimus Ecdicius  

Ian Wood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bishop of Vienne, from c.490 ce. A member of the powerful family of the Aviti, he succeeded his father, Hesychius, as bishop. His brother, Apollinaris, was bishop of Valence. He was ... More

Basil of Caesarea  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Basil of Caesarea (*Cappadocia), c. 330–79 ce (the dates are debated but not disproved). He is honoured as the chief architect of monastic life in the Greek Church. His early education was completed ... More

Bede (Beda Venerabilis), c. 673–735 CE  

Scott DeGregorio

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bede (Beda Venerabilis) was Anglo-Saxon England’s most prolific Latin writer, and indeed one of the most distinguished authors of the early Middle Ages. At the end of his most celebrated work, ... More

Benedictus Nursinus, c. 480–c. 550 CE  

Scott G. Bruce

Online publication date:
May 2016
Benedict of Nursia was an Italian abbot active in the hinterland of Rome at Subiaco and Monte Cassino in the early 6th century. He is best known as the author of a normative guide for monastic life, ... More

Caesarea (2) in Palestine  

Edith Mary Smallwood and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caesarea (2) in Palestine, under its original name of Strato's Tower (after a king of *Sidon), was captured by the *Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus in 103 bce, attached to the province of Syria by ... More

Cassian  

Philip Rousseau and Richard Goodrich

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Born in c. 360 ce, Cassian was one of the principal conduits for the transmission of eastern ascetic practices to the west. A disciple of Evagrius of Pontus, he travelled through Syria, Palestine, ... More

catacombs, Christian  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Jocelyn M. C. Toynbee, and Leonard V. Rutgers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A term derived from κατὰ κύμβας, a locality close to the church of St Sebastian on the *via Appia, 3 miles south of Rome. The name may refer to the natural hollows across which the road passes or to ... More

Celsus, Roman author of The True Doctrine, late 2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Author of a comprehensive philosophical polemic against *Christianity, The True Doctrine, written probably between 175 and 181 (Origen, C. Cels. 8. 69, 71). The work is primarily known through ... More

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