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abortion  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More

age  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The division of life into age-groups was prominently adhered to in antiquity, though there was considerable disagreement as to their precise identification. The Pythagorean philosophers (see ... More

Agnodice  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Appears in *Hyginus (3) (Fab.274) in a list of discoverers and inventors. She is described as an Athenian girl who lived at a time when there were no *midwives, because women and slaves ... More

agōgē  

Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Spartan public upbringing (never in fact so-called in surviving writers of the 5th and 4th cents. bce). Its reconstruction is bedevilled by poor and conflicting sources and modern debate over how ... More

Amazons  

Ken Dowden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Amazons, mythical race of female warriors. The name was popularly understood as ‘breastless’ (maza, ‘breast’) and the story told that they ‘pinched out’ or ‘cauterized’ the right breast so as not to ... More

androgyny  

Luc Brisson

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
In the modern use, “bisexuality” refers to sexual object choice, whereas “androgyny” refers to sexual identity. In ancient Greece and Rome, however, these terms sometimes refer to human ... More

anthropology and the classics  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Anthropology and the classics currently enjoy a fairly good relationship, but one which has never been stable. In the 19th cent. the interest of evolutionary anthropology in a ‘savage’ ... More

Anyte  

Gilbert Highet and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Anyte of *Tegea(fl. early 3rd cent. bc), an Arcadian poetess, much admired in her time and thereafter. About eighteen of her Doric epigrams, mostly funerary, are in the Greek Anthology, and one is ... More

Artemon (5), of Magnesia, Greek author  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Artemon (5), of Magnesia (date uncertain), author of a Famous Exploits of Women, from which *Sopater (2) made excerpts.

Baubo  

Nicholas J. Richardson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Baubo belongs to the main Orphic version of the Rape of *Persephone (Asclepiades of Tragilus, FGrH 12. 4; Orph. frs. 49–52 O. Kern; see orphism). She resembles *Iambe in the Homeric Hymn ... More

betrothal, Greek  

Gordon Willis Williams and Mark Golden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Greek betrothal, ἐγγύη, was a contract between two men, the groom and the bride's father (or other κύριος, ‘controller’, male representative at law) which established that a union was a fully valid ... More

betrothal, Roman sponsalia  

Gordon Willis Williams and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the republic consisted of reciprocal sponsiones, and breach-of-promise actions (in the form of actions for damages) existed. The movement of classical Roman law was in the direction of ... More

body  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The history of the body is a discipline which emerged in the 1980s; it questions the extent to which the body is “natural,” and asks whether all societies have experienced the body in the ... More

Boeo  

Ken Dowden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boeo, short form of a woman's name (based on ‘Boeotian’ ?).(1) Legendary Delphian (see delphi) author of a *hymn mentioning *Hyperboreans and the prophet *Olen (Pausanias 10. 5. 7–8).(2) Either Boeo ... More

breast-feeding  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Breast-feeding was a proof of maternal devotion and, according to some philosophers, a good woman's duty (there is a detailed discussion in Gell.NA 12. 1). It was acknowledged to be ... More

chastity, Christian  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Christian Celibacy and asceticism are endemic to Christianity and are typical of the distinctive outlook on life which runs throughout much of early Christian literature. The practice of holiness, ... More

chastity, pre-Christian  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Chastity was not recommended in classical Greek *medicine before *Soranus. In pagan religion, certain goddesses chose to remain virgins (e.g. *Hestia/*Vesta,*Artemis/*Diana) and some priestesses—nor ... More

childbirth  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Childbirth was generally the concern of women, either family and neighbours or experienced *midwives who were sometimes ranked as doctors, but male doctors expected to be called in for difficult ... More

children  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greece the decision whether to raise a child normally rested with the father except in *Sparta where ‘elders of the tribes’ were required to pronounce upon its fitness to live (Plut.Lyc. 16. 1). ... More

contraception  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contraception played a minor role in Hippocratic medicine, where the emphasis was rather on helping women to conceive. (See hippocrates(2).) The exception is a substance called ‘misy’, possibly ... More

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