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Achaean Confederacy, Greek  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Achaean Confederacy, federal organization developed by the twelve Achaean cities (see achaea) united in the cult of Zeus Hamarios. First mentioned in 453 bce as Athenian allies, Achaea's independence ... More

Aegina  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Aegina, island in Saronic Gulf, inhabited from late neolithic times and in contact with Minoan Crete and Mycenae. Early in the first millennium bce it was resettled by Greeks from ... More

Aegospotami  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
‘Goat’s rivers’ in the *Hellespont, probably an open beach somewhere opposite *Lampacus, scene of the final and decisive sea-battle of the *Peloponnesian war, a victory over the Athenians ... More

Aeneas Tacticus  

David Whitehead

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aeneas (Aineias) Tacticus, probably the Stymphalian general of the Arcadian koinon (see arcadian league) in 367 bce (Xen. Hell. 7. 3. 1); anyway the earlies (-surviving) and most ... More

Aeschines (2) Socraticus  

Michael Gagarin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(4th cent. bce), of the *deme of Sphettus in Attica, a devoted follower of *Socrates, was present at his trial and death. He wrote speeches for the lawcourts and taught oratory, but fell ... More

Aetolian Confederacy  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The looser tribal organization of the Aetolians of NW Greece gave way during the 4th cent. bce to a *federal state, or league, which soon acquired considerable power. This increased dramatically in ... More

Agatharchides, of Cnidus, Greek historian, geographer, and Peripatetic philosopher, c. 215–after 145 BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Who lived most of his adult life in *Alexandria (1), eventually leaving, perhaps in flight to Athens after 145. He was not, as previously believed, regent to *Ptolemy (1) IX but was in the ... More

Agathocles (1), tyrant  

Klaus Meister

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Agathocles (1) tyrant, later king of *Syracuse, born 361/0 bce in Thermae, Sicily. His father Carcinus, an exile from *Rhegium, received Syracusan citizenship under *Timoleon343/2 and owned a large ... More

age classes  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A method of social and political organization in *Sparta and Crete in the Classical period. Traces of analogous institutions in other Greek states permit the hypothesis that age-class systems played ... More

Agesilaus II, Spartan king of the Eurypontid house, c. 445–359 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Agesilaus II (c. 445–359 bce), Spartan king of the junior, *Eurypontid line. Son of *Archidamus II by his second wife, he was not expected to succeed his older half-brother *Agis II and so went ... More

Agis II, Spartan king of the Eurypontid house, c. 427–400 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
(the first to be given a name belonging naturally to the *Agiads) from c.427 to 400 bce; he was son of *Archidamus II by his first wife. He achieved widespread prominence in 418, as nominal victor of ... More

Agis III, Spartan king, 338–330? BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agis III, king of Sparta (338–?330 bce), *Eurypontid. Ascending the throne at a time of humiliation, when Sparta had lost her borderlands to *Philip (1) II of Macedon, he devoted himself ... More

Agis IV, c. 262–241 BCE  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agis IV (c. 262–241 bce), son of Eudamidas, ascended the *Eurypontid throne in c. 244, at a time of domestic crisis. Concentration of estates in a few hands, heavy indebtedness of the majority, ... More

agōgē  

Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Spartan public upbringing (never in fact so-called in surviving writers of the 5th and 4th cents. bce). Its reconstruction is bedevilled by poor and conflicting sources and modern debate over how ... More

Agyrrhius, Athenian politician, fl. c. 405–373 BCE  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Agyrrhius (fl. c. 405–373 BCE). Athenian politician, introduced payment of one obol for attending the assembly (see ekklesia), and later increased it from two obols to three; sometimes, but probably ... More

Alcibiades, 451/450–404/403 BCE  

Henry Dickinson Westlake and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Alcibiades (451/0–404/3 BCE), son of Cleinias, Athenian general and politician. Brought up in the household of his guardian *Pericles (1), he became the pupil and intimate friend of *Socrates. A ... More

Alcidas  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alcidas, Spartan commander in the early part of the *Peloponnesian War, failed to help *Mytilene in its revolt from Athens 428–7 and treated prisoners brutally (Thuc. 3. 17, 29–33) so ... More

Alcmaeonidae  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alcmaeonidae, a noble Athenian family prominent in politics. Its first eminent member was Megacles, who as archon (see archontes), perhaps in 632/1 bce, involved it in a hereditary *curse (see ... More

alcoholism, Greek  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Greeks were unfamiliar with modern concepts of alcoholism, but they were well aware of self-destructive drinking and the effects of habitual drunkenness. In the Odyssey, *Homer makes a ... More

Aleuadae  

Bruno Helly

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aleuadae, aristocratic family of *Larissa in *Thessaly. The military and political organization of the federal Thessalian state goes back to Aleuas the Red (second half of the 6th cent. bce). The ... More

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