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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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Acragas  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Was founded c.580 bce by the Geloans (see gela) in Sican territory in central southern Sicily. One of the most substantial Hellenic cities in size and affluence, it occupied a large bowl of land, ... More

Agasias (1), son of Dositheus, Ephesian sculptor, c. 100 BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agasias (1) Ephesiansculptor, son of Dositheus, active c.100 bce. He signed the Borghese Warrior from Anzio, now in the Louvre, a nude figure striding forward to parry an attack from ... More

Agasias (2), son of Menophilus, Ephesian sculptor, c. 100 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agasias (2) Ephesiansculptor, son of Menophilus, active on *Delosc.100 bce. A fallen Celt is often associated with one signed base, dedicated by C. Marius; attributions include the bronze ‘Worried ... More

Agatharchus, painter  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Painter of Samos. He was the first to make a skēnē, for Aeschylus (probably for a revival at the time of the *Peloponnesian War), and wrote a book on ‘skēnē-painting’, which inspired ... More

agora  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Greek term for an area where people gather together, most particularly for the political functions of the *polis, normally sited centrally in cities (as at *Priene), or at least central to the street ... More

Agoracritus, Parian sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agoracritus, Parian sculptor, active c. 440–400 bce. A pupil of *Phidias, he made a bronze Athena Itonia and Zeus/Hades for *Coronea in Boeotia, a marble Mother of the Gods for the Metroon in the ... More

agricultural implements, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The *technology of Greek *agriculture was simple, and apparently underwent little development. Breaking up the ground, which was fundamental to sowing, weed-control, and preservation of moisture, was ... More

Alcamenes, Athenian (or Lemnian) sculptor, fl. C. 440–400 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Phidias' favourite pupil, he made numerous statues of divinities in Athens and Boeotia, in gold and ivory, bronze, and marble. The sole survivor, from the Acropolis, is a group of Procne ... More

alcoholism, Greek  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Greeks were unfamiliar with modern concepts of alcoholism, but they were well aware of self-destructive drinking and the effects of habitual drunkenness. In the Odyssey, *Homer makes a ... More

Amathus  

Hector Catling

Amathus, a major coastal city of *Cyprus, on a hill near mod. Ayios Tychonas, 10 km. (6 mi.) east of Limassol, surrounded by extensive and much excavated cemeteries, and immediately adjacent to its ... More

Amphipolis  

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Amphipolis, on the east bank of the Strymon, which surrounds the city on three sides (hence its name), 5 km. (3 mi.) from its seaport Eïon; it was originally the site of a Thracian town, Ennea Hodoi ... More

amphorae and amphora stamps, Greek  

Alan Johnston and Virginia Randolph Grace

The amphora is one of the most versatile and long-lived pot shapes. A two-handled jar (amphi-phoreus, ‘carried on both sides’), it can vary enormously in size, detail of shape, and manner ... More

Amyzon  

Simon Hornblower

Amyzon, remote but important *sanctuary in *Caria, north of *Mylasa. Greek inscriptions have been found there dating from the time of the 4th-cent. bce Hecatomnid *satrap*Idrieus, also of *Philip (2) ... More

Antenor (2), Athenian sculptor, fl. c. 530–500 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
According to Pausanias (1. 8. 5), he made the first bronze group of the tyrannicides Harmodius and *Aristogiton for the Athenian agora; Pliny (HN 34. 70) dates it to 510. *Xerxes I took it ... More

Antigonus (4), of Carystus, writer and bronze-worker, fl. c. 240 BCE  

Frank William Walbank and Andrew F. Stewart

Antigonus (4) of Carystus (fl. c. 240 BCE), writer and bronzeworker, lived at Athens and (apparently) at *Pergamum. An inferior anecdotal collection survives: (a) Ἱστοριῶν ... More

Antikythera Mechanism  

Alexander Jones

The Antikythera Mechanism (National Archaeological Museum, Athens, inv. X 15087) was a Hellenistic gearwork device for displaying astronomical and chronological functions. Substantial but ... More

Antissa  

D. Graham J. Shipley

Antissa, small coastal *polis in NW *Lesbos; birthplace of the poet *Terpander. A bronze age site has been explored; the Classical town originated in the early geometric period. Three ... More

Apelles  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apelles, painter, of Colophon, later of Ephesus (sometimes called Coan because of the Coan ‘Aphrodite’). He is mentioned more frequently, and generally considered better, than any other painter. ... More

apoikia  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apoikia, ‘a settlement far from home, a colony’ (LSJ), and hence a Greek community regarded as distinct from the kind of trading-post conventionally known as an *emporion. In effect, an apoikia may ... More

Apollonius (6), son of Archias, Athenian sculptor, 1st cent. BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apollonius (6) (1st cent. bce), son of Archias, Athenian sculptor. A copyist and a member of a sculptor-dynasty alternating the names Apollonius and Archias, he was author of a herm (see herms) of ... More

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