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Aedesius, d. c. 355 CE  

Anne Sheppard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Of *Cappadocia, *Neoplatonist, pupil of *Iamblichus (2) and teacher of *Maximus (3) Chrysanthius, Priscus, and Eusebius Myndius. He set up a school of philosophy in Pergamum. No writings ... More

(Aelia) Eudocia, c. 400–460 CE  

Pavlos Avlamis

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Originally named Athenais, Eudocia was the daughter of Leontius, a teacher of rhetoric. She was born in Athens (Evagrius Scholasticus Historia ecclesiastica 1.20) and probably followed her father in ... More

Aetius, Flavius, d. 454 CE  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aetius, Flavius (d. ce 454), Roman patrician and general, ruler of the western Empire c. 432 to 454. In the 410s he served lengthy periods as a hostage among both the Visigoths (see *goths) and ... More

Agathias  

Averil M. Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agathias, also referred to as Agathias Scholasticus (‘lawyer’), historian, and poet in *Constantinople, c.ce 532–c.580. A native of Myrina in Aeolis, where his father was a rhetor, he was educated at ... More

agentes in rebus  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The detested frumentarii (see postal service) were abolished by *Diocletian, but were soon replaced by ‘agents’ perhaps purposely ill-defined, who likewise served as couriers between the court ... More

Agroecius  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agroecius, bishop of Sens (c. 470ce) and associate of *Sidonius Apollinaris, wrote a treatise on spelling, De orthographia (ed. Keil, Gramm. Lat. 7. 113–25), dedicated to Eucherius of ... More

Alamanni  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alamanni (Alemanni), a loose concentration of *Germanic communities, under various petty kings, located on former Roman territory west of the Rhine and north of the Danube in the 3rd and later ... More

Alans  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alans, *nomadic pastoralists who lived in the northern *Pontus in the early cents. ce, operating politically in a number of separate subgroups. They often tried to cross the Caucasus—*Arrian, when ... More

Alaric  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Alaric, Gothic leader c. 395–410 ce who created the *Visigoths. By 408 he had united the Tervingi and Greuthungi who had crossed the Danube in 376 with survivors of Radagaisus' force which ... More

Allectus  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Allectus, probably finance minister (rationalis summae rei) of the usurper *Carausius, whom he succeeded by assassination in ce 293. His coinage and the archaeological evidence of ambitious ... More

Ammianus Marcellinus, c. 330–395 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Ammianus Marcellinus (c. 330–95 ce), the last great Latin historian of the Roman empire, was born at Syrian *Antioch (1). His early entry, c.350, into the élite corps of protectores domestici may ... More

Anicia Iuliana, c. 461–527/528 CE  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Anicia Iuliana (c. CE 461–527/8), a Constantinopolitan aristocrat (see constantinople) of western senatorial family (the Anicii) and imperial descent (*Valentinian III, grandfather; ... More

Anthemius  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Anthemius, western Roman emperor (ce 467–72), son-in-law of Marcian, eastern emperor, was imposed on *Ricimer by the eastern court. Though praised by *Sidonius Apollinaris in a panegyric, he lacked ... More

Anthimus  

Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Anthimus was a Greek doctor attached to the court of the emperor Zeno (ce 474–91) who was involved in treasonable relations with the Ostrogothic king *Theoderic (2) Strabo in 481. He fled Roman ... More

Antiphilus  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Antiphilus, of Byzantium, author of 50 epigrams in the Greek Anthology (see anthology), from the Garland of *Philippus (2). Some are ingenious paradoxes or descriptions of freak accidents, many are ... More

Arcadius (2), Flavius, Roman emperor  

Edward Arthur Thompson and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Arcadius (2), Flavius, eastern Roman emperor (ce 383–408), was the elder son of *Theodosius (2) I. Weak and irritable, he filled the essential role of emperor, while policy was made by a succession ... More

armies, Roman, late empire  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The army of the late empire is brilliantly described by *Ammianus Marcellinus, and its order of battle (c. 395 ce) survives in the *Notitia Dignitatum, but its evolution is obscure. As pressure upon ... More

Aspar, Flavius Ardaburius  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
An important general in the eastern empire for at least four decades from about 430 ce, or earlier, to his death. As an *Arian he could not aspire to the throne, but he came close to wielding at ... More

Athalaric  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(Ostro-) *Gothic king of Italy 526–34 ce, grandson of *Theoderic (1) son of Amalasuentha and Eutharic (consul 519). After Eutharic's death, Athalaric was Theoderic's heir though still a minor. His ... More

Athanaric  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gothic leader, made a treaty with *Valens in 369 ce but c.376 failed to hold off a Hunnic attack on his territories and withdrew to a refuge in the Carpathian mountains, yielding Gothic leadership to ... More

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