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Abydos  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Was the best harbour on the Asiatic side of the *Hellespont. In the Iliad (2. 836) an ally of Troy and then a Thracian settlement, it was colonized c.700 bce by Milesians (see ... More

Achaemenid art  

Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
The official sculpture of the Persian empire was made in a distinctive style which owed much to Mesopotamian forerunners, and like them tended to the glorification of the ruler. It used to be thought ... More

Achaemenids  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
The term, as used by Herodotus (1. 125), refers to one of the three clans (phrētrē) of the Pasargadae tribe to which the Persian kings belonged; its eponymous ancestor was supposedly Achaemenes (Hdt. ... More

Achaeus (3), d. 213 BCE  

Guy Thompson Griffith and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Achaeus (3) (d. 213 BCE), viceroy for *Antiochus (3) III of Seleucid Asia Minor and his kinsman (maternal uncle), probably the grandson of the Seleucid official Achaeus the Elder. In 223/2 ... More

Ada  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ada, *satrap (see mausolus) of the Persian province of *Caria, youngest child of *Hecatomnus, sister of *Mausolus and of *Idrieus, to whom she was incestuously married and with whom she ... More

Adiabene  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Adiabene (mod. Halab), district of the two Zab rivers in north *Mesopotamia. Possibly a Seleucid hyparchy, it became a vassal kingdom, later a satrapy, of *Parthia, and was constantly involved in ... More

Adulis  

Robert G. Morkot

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Adulis or Adule, on the west coast of the Red Sea (at Zulla in Annesley Bay near Massawa), was used by Ptolemy II and III for elephant-hunts (see elephants), and became an important ... More

Aezani  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ... More

Africa (Libya), exploration  

Joyce Reynolds

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Africa was distinguished from Asia as the third continent by c.500 bce, with the Nile, later usually the Red Sea, as divider; but its interior and, even at the most extended period of knowledge, its ... More

Ahhiyawa  

J. David Hawkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Country attested in the *Hattuša archives (alternative and older spelling, Ahhiya) as a foreign land, often associated with Arzawa, i.e. western Anatolia. References mention kings, persons, ships, ... More

Ahura Mazdā  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Near East
‘Wise Lord’ or ‘Lord Wisdom’, Iranian supreme deity invoked as wise, benevolent god, creator and upholder of Aṣ̌a (truth, righteousness) in the Avesta (Yasna 31.8). In *Achaemenid ... More

Ai Khanoum  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ai Khanoum, Greek Hellenistic city excavated (1965–78) by the French archaeological delegation in Afghanistan, is situated in the eastern part of *Bactria, at the junction of the river *Oxus (mod. ... More

Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

Al-Mina  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Al-Mina, a port at the mouth of the river *Orontes in Turkey, excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1936–7. It was established as a trading-post (*emporion) by 800 bce and visited by ... More

Albania, Transcaucasian  

David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Albania (Transcaucasian), the land between *Iberia and the *Caspian, to the north of *Media Atropatene: it now lies largely within northern Azerbaijan and Daghestan. Albania comprises an ... More

Alexander (10) Balas  

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexander (10) Balas, king of the Seleudid empire (150–145 bce), claiming to be the son of *Antiochus (4) IV, usurped the Seleucid throne after the defeat and death of *Demetrius (10) I near *Antioch ... More

Alexandria (3), 'of the Arachosians'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (3) ‘of the Arachosians’, founded by *Alexander (3) the Great in 329 bce on the strategic site of the *Achaemenid capital of Arachosia (Old Kandahar). Besides a Graeco-Aramaic edict of ... More

Alexandria (4), 'of the Arians'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East

Alexandria (4) ‘of the Arians’, founded by *Alexander (3) the Great near Herat, on a different site from Artakoana. Important staging-point on route leading to Kandahar and India.

Alexandria (5) Eschate, 'the farthest'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (5) Eschate (‘the farthest’), founded close to Cyreschata (mod. Leninabad/Khodjend) on the Syr-Darya (*Jaxartes), the largest of seven *‘Achaemenid' fortresses seized by ... More

Alexandria (6), 'among the Paropamisadae'  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Alexandria (6) ‘among the Paropamisadae’, founded on the strategic site of Begram, about 80 km. (50 mi.) north of modern Kabul. (Also known as Alexandria under Caucasus, see Arrian Anab. 3. 28. 4 and ... More

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