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Academy  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Academy, public *gymnasium at Athens, sacred to the hero Academus, north-west of the Dipylon gate. It gave its name to the school founded there by *Plato (1) in the early 4th cent. and maintained by ... More

Aenesidemus, of Cnossus, Sceptic philosopher  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Aenesidemus of Cnossus, sceptical philosopher, revived Pyrrhonism (see pyrrhon) in the 1st cent. bce, probably as a reaction to the decline of scepticism in the Academy under *Philon (3) ... More

Aeschines (2) Socraticus  

Michael Gagarin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(4th cent. bce), of the *deme of Sphettus in Attica, a devoted follower of *Socrates, was present at his trial and death. He wrote speeches for the lawcourts and taught oratory, but fell ... More

aesthetics  

S. Halliwell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Since its coinage in the mid-18th cent., ‘aesthetics’ has come gradually to embrace philosophies of both art and beauty (whether natural or created). Antiquity lacked any explicit tradition of ... More

Aëtius (1)  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Aëtius (1), probably late 1st cent. ce, author of a comprehensive survey of the contrasting views of Greek philosophers on questions in natural philosophy. Hermann Diels convincingly argued that this ... More

Agatharchides, of Cnidus, Greek historian, geographer, and Peripatetic philosopher, c. 215–after 145 BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Who lived most of his adult life in *Alexandria (1), eventually leaving, perhaps in flight to Athens after 145. He was not, as previously believed, regent to *Ptolemy (1) IX but was in the ... More

Agrippa, Pyrrhonist Sceptic philosopher  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Dates unknown, but later than *Aenesidemus. Diogenes Laertius (9. 88) ascribes to him a set of five modes (τρόποι) of argument introduced to supplement or replace the older Modes of ... More

Albinus (1), Platonist philosopher  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Albinus (1) Platonist philosopher, pupil of *Gaius (2). Taught at Smyrna, where Galen heard him lecture in ce 151–2. The only extant writing which is certainly his is a brief preface to Plato's ... More

Alcinous (2)  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alcinous (2), accredited in the MSS as author of the Didaskalikos, or ‘Handbook of Platonism’, a summary of *Plato (1)'s doctrines designed as a handbook for the general public. He was long ... More

Alcmaeon (2), of Croton, Greek philosopher, 5th cent. BCE  

Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen and Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Wrote a philosophical book dedicated to a group of Pythagoreans (see pythagoras (1)), and known to *Aristotle and *Theophrastus. It mostly concerned the nature of man. Alcmaeon explained ... More

Alexander (14), of Aphrodisias, commentator on Aristotle  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Appointed public teacher of Aristotelian philosophy, probably though not certainly in Athens, at some time between 198 and 209 ce (his treatise On Fate being dedicated then to *Septimius Severus and ... More

Amafinius, Gaius  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Amafinius, Gaius, older contemporary of Cicero, popularized the philosophy of *Epicurus in Latin. Cicero refers to him disparagingly (Fam. 15. 19. 2; Acad. Post. 1. 5. Cf. Tusc. 1. 6, 2. ... More

Amelius  

D. O'Meara

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Amelius (or Amerius) Gentilianus (3rd cent. ce), from Etruria, was *Plotinus̕ pupil 246–69. He wrote extensively, mainly presenting and defending Plotinus' philosophy, which he did not ... More

Ammonius (2) Saccas  

Erik Robertson Dodds and John Dillon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Ammonius (2) Saccas, of *Alexandria (1), Platonist philosopher, active in first half of 3rd cent. ce, famous as the teacher of *Plotinus, who studied under him 232–42, as well as of *Origen (1) the ... More

Anaxagoras, c. 500–428 BCE  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Anaxagoras (probably 500–428 BCE), son of Hegesibulus, and a native of *Clazomenae; the first philosopher known to have settled in Athens. The evidence for his biography, although relatively ... More

Anaxarchus  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Anaxarchus, of *Abdera, a Democritean philosopher (see democritus) and teacher of *Pyrrhon (the putative founder of Scepticism). He accompanied *Alexander (3) the Great on his Asian campaigns—a ... More

Anaximander, of Miletus, d. c. 547 BCE  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Anaximander of *Miletu (died soon after 547 BCE), said to be an associate or disciple of *Thales, was the first Greek to write a prose treatise ‘On the Nature of Things’ (Peri physeōs). ... More

Anaximenes (1)  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Anaximenes (1), of *Miletus (traditional floruit 546–525 bce) followed in the footsteps of *Anaximander in composing a treatise in Ionian prose in which he developed a world system on the ... More

Andronicus  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Andronicus of Rhodes, Peripatetic philosopher, who recalled the attention of the school to the works of *Aristotle and *Theophrastus (see peripatetic school). With the assistance of the grammarian ... More

animals, attitudes to  

Richard Sorabji

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
This was the subject of a huge debate among the philosophers. Already in the 6th and 5th cents. bce*Pythagoras (1) and *Empedocles had attacked the killing or maltreatment of animals, partly on the ... More

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