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acta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Acta means ‘the things that have been done’ and has two specialized, overlapping senses in Roman history; one is a gazette, the other is official acts, especially of an emperor.The Acta diurna were a ... More

actio  

Thomas Rüfner

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
In Roman law, the word actio refers to a civil lawsuit. At first sight, it seems obvious that actio derives from the verb ago, which has the basic meaning “to drive,” “to urge,” or simply “to act.” ... More

adaeratio  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Adaeratio, the procedure whereby dues to the Roman state in kind were commuted to cash payments. The related word adaerare first appears in ce 383 (Cod. Theod. 7. 18. 8) and the practice is ... More

adlection  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
A man acquired the right of speaking in the Roman senate (ius sententiae dicendae; see senate) by holding a magistracy, the quaestorship; he became a full member when his name was placed on the ... More

adoption, Roman  

Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Adoptio is a legal act by which a Roman citizen enters another family and comes under the *patria potestas of its chief. Since only a paterfamilias (see patria potestas) could adopt, women could not ... More

adultery, Roman  

Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman tradition ascribed to fathers and husbands great severity in punishing illicit sexual behaviour by daughters or wives. Such misconduct was stuprum in married or unmarried women, an offence ... More

advocacy  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
This article considers advocacy as a profession. For advocacy in its wider sense and in particular for its techniques, see rhetoric.A party to a Roman trial might entrust the presentation of his case ... More

aediles, Roman magistrates  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
The aediles originated as two subordinates of the tribunes of the plebs whose sacrosanctity they shared. Their central function was to supervise the common temple (aedes) and cults of the plebs, ... More

Aelius Marcianus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Aelius Marcianus, a lawyer of the early 3rd cent. ce, probably from the eastern provinces. Mainly a teacher, he does not seem to have given responsa (consultative opinions). His extensive ... More

Aelius Paetus, Sextus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Aelius Paetus, Sextus, a Roman lawyer nicknamed ‘Catus’ (clever) for his shrewd pragmatism, was consul in 198 bce. He was the author of Tripertita, so called because it contained three elements: the ... More

Aelius Tubero, Quintus  

Ernst Badian, Tony Honoré, and Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Aelius Tubero, Quintus, son of Lucius (above), accompanied his father 49–48 bce and fought at *Pharsalus, but was pardoned by *Caesar. In 46 he prosecuted Q. *Ligarius (whom Cicero successfully ... More

Aemilius Papinianus  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Aemilius (RE 105) Papinianus, a leading lawyer of the Severan age and a close associate of the emperor *Septimius Severus, probably came, like him, from Africa and had some exposure to ... More

aerarii  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarii, payers, were a class of Roman citizens who had incurred the *censors' condemnation for some moral or other misbehaviour. They were required to pay the poll-tax (*tributum) at a ... More

aerarium  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state ... More

ager publicus  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Ager publicus, public land, comprised lands acquired by Rome by conquest from her enemies or confiscation from rebellious allies. By tradition there was, as early as the 5th cent. bce, dispute ... More

agrarian laws and policy  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations (colonies; see colonization, greek), and when land was annexed (*cleruchies). There is also ... More

alimenta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The purpose of the alimentary foundations in the Roman empire was to give an allowance for feeding children, and this was achieved by the investment of capital in mortgage on land, the ... More

amicitia  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Amicitia, friendship in Roman political terminology. The relationship might be between Rome and either another state or an individual (see client kings), or between individuals. Amici populi Romani ... More

amicus Augusti  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Drawing on the institutionalized philoi (friends) of Hellenistic rulers, political leaders of the 1st cent. bce made friendship a technical term of Roman political life (*popularis politicians were ... More

ampliatio  

Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Means ‘a further hearing’ and is known to us as a feature of procedure in some *quaestiones and trials before *recuperatores under the republic. When a certain proportion of the jury regarded the ... More

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